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Girls, boys and a top: gender/environmental differences and a test of playfulness: research version 2




Tyler, Rebecca Elin-Geis, author
Bundy, Anita C., advisor
Barrett, Karen Caplovitz, committee member
Short-DeGraff, Peggy, committee member

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The effects of gender and the environment on children's playfulness scores using the ToP were examined. Videotapes of 124 children, ages 19 to 118 months were scored by trained raters. One hundred and seven were typically-developing children, seventeen of the children had known disabilities. Results revealed that gender does not appear to be a factor that affects the scores. Also, age does not seem to produce any differences in the scores. However, playfulness scores do appear to differ between the indoor versus the outdoor environment. Six items (Pretends (Ext), Challenges (Ext), Challenges (Int), Exuberance, Plays with Others, and Plays interactively) seem to account for the difference found between the settings. This research suggests that the ToP appears to transcend gender, age and activity. Further research is needed to determine if the ToP in fact, needs to be given in both the indoor and outdoor environments.


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Play assessment (Child psychology)
Sex role in children


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