Use and productivity of Egypt's Nile water

Molden, David J., author
el Kady, Mona, author
Zhu, Zhongping, author
U.S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, publisher
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Many irrigated areas worldwide are facing increasing competition from agricultural, municipal, industrial, environmental and other uses of water. In water basins, changes in water use in one area often affect how water is used in another area. It is therefore vital to understand how water resources are presently used, and how changes may affect future use of water. A water accounting methodology is presented to show the use and productivity of water. The methodology was applied to Egypt's Nile River system to evaluate the present status of water use and productivity. It was shown that there has been a trend of increasing consumption of water by agriculture and an increase in the productivity of water available to agriculture. There is little water remaining to be saved, and increases in productivity must focus on gains in productivity per unit of water consumed by evapotranspiration. The example from Egypt demonstrates the use and utility of the water accounting methodology in describing water use patterns by different sectors. It is envisaged that this methodology will be further developed to be useful in a wide range of situations.
Presented at Contemporary challenges for irrigation and drainage: proceedings from the USCID 14th technical conference on irrigation, drainage and flood control held on June 3-6, 1998 in Phoenix, Arizona.
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