Unsteady movement of ripples and dunes related to bed-load transport
Two methods for computing bed-load transport from dune movement are considered. An equation based on the mean forward velocity and mean height of ripples and dunes is applied to flume data, and yields satisfactory results where the average dune shapes, velocities and heights can be determined accurately, as it the case for uniform two-dimensional flow. For unsteady flow, or for three-dimensional flow, where the size, shape, and movement of dunes varies in time and space, the volume of material passing through a series of incremental widths during some total time can be determined from sonic ...
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