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Plenary Sessions 1-4

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This digital collection includes presentations of plenary sessions from the 9th International Wildlife Ranching Symposium held in 2016.


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  • ItemOpen Access
    Program of the 9th international wildlife ranching symposium: wildlife - the key to prosperity for rural communities
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Abstracts of parallel sessions are included. Symposium includes 4 Plenary sessions, and parallel sessions covering Wildlife Management; Sustainable Use of Wildlife; and IUCN 2nd African Buffalo Symposium.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Rhino in crisis
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Jones, Pelham, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Private reserves in South Africa with rhino extend over 2 million ha and are home to 33% of the nation's rhino population (some 6200 animals, more than the rest of Africa combined). This conservation effort is carried out with no government assistance and very limited NGO assistance at huge sacrifice to reserve owners and their staff. The presentation covers the impact of poaching on private reserves, interventions to negate the risk and actions of poachers as well as addressing some of the successes achieved in reducing this transnational criminal activity. The need for trade in rhino horn is discussed to bring much need revenue back to support conservation efforts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Rhinos: economics, trade and politics
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Sas-Rolfes, Michael 't, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    At the forthcoming CITES Conference of Parties the future of trade in several key species – rhinos, elephants and lions – will be bitterly contested. Swaziland's proposal to establish a legal trade in rhino horn will most likely be rejected, primarily for political reasons. Despite an apparent 'success' period of a decade from the mid-1990s, the CITES trade ban on rhino horn has mostly been a conservation failure since it was first established in the 1970s. The resurgence of poaching over the last decade presents a serious threat to wildlife ranchers and state parks agencies alike. Whereas some might regard the high value of rhino horn as an opportunity for wildlife ranching and the development of new community-based enterprises, various NGOs and governments only see it as a threat. Accordingly, their focus is on increased law enforcement supported by so-called demand reduction campaigns and they reject the notion of legal rhino horn trade as a possible solution. Why is this so and what are the implications for the wildlife ranching industry? My presentation will consider these questions by outlining both the economic and political factors at play. After explaining the motivations of legal trade opponents, I will outline the hurdles that the wildlife ranching industry must overcome, not only to ensure the future of rhinos, but to ensure the future of the wildlife ranching industry as a whole, which is now under threat from the current public mood and international policies that increasingly favour preservation and prohibition over sustainable use and trade.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Balepye rhino conservation and sustainable livelihoods: game ranching presentation
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Maenetja, Dipati Benjamin, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    International trade in rhino horn was banned in the 1970's and this ban has had the same effect as the prohibition of alcohol did in the US by creating a black market. Banning trade has only contributed to increasing poaching as also evidenced by South Africa's ban of domestic trade in rhino horn being followed by a spike in poaching. Legalising trade will take away control of trade from black markets and let regulated markets take over thus crippling criminal syndicates and curbing rhino poaching. The ban on international trade of rhino horn and all other interventions, including anti-poaching units and awareness campaigns, have failed to effectively protect rhinos. Sustainable utilisation of rhinos is the only logical option left to save rhinos. Sustainable utilisation requires legalizing trade and has been proven in the past to be effective as seen with animals such as ostriches, crocodiles and others. Sustainable use of South America's vicuñahas resulted in the animal being saved from extinction while contributing to conservation and alleviating poverty, the same can be achieved with rhinos through legalisation of trade. For this reason rhino horn can be sustainably utilised by harvesting it regularly through dehorning without killing the animal. When harvesting you get about 30 to 60 kilograms of rhino horn from a single rhino that is kept alive over a period of time. Through poaching or pseudo hunting you only get about 1-3kg and at times even 6kg from a full grown adult and the rhino is killed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Key issues to consider in deliberations on a legal trade in rhino horn
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Hanks, John, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Africa's rhinos face an insecure future in the continent's designated protected areas with no solutions in sight in the foreseeable future for securing the required substantial increase in funding for adequately equipped and trained staff. The presentation will review the present and proposed option to reduce rhino poaching with particular reference to their realism and sustainability, and the vital importance of community-led solutions to tackling wildlife crime. The advantages and benefits of a legal trade in rhino horn will be summarized, stressing that an essential prerequisite for the trade is to stop the developed world dictating to Africa on how to manage its wildlife.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ensuring the future of rhinos
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Knight, Mike, author; Emslie, Richard, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Rampant poaching of Africa's rhinos for their horn is on the point of pushing the continent's populations of 25,600 animals into decline –threatening to reverse this iconic conservation success story. This achievement was built upon a whole suite of actions inclusive of protection, biological management, monitoring, coordination, communication, cooperation, economic and social sustainability, public backing, political support, adequate resources (human and financial) and innovation along with the willingness to experiment. Current international and national responses to the rhino crisis have seen a heavy emphasis of law enforcement in both range and consumer states, together with a focus on trying to reduce consumer demand for the product. This has realized a shift back to a protectionist paradigm, potentially alienating communities around rhino reserves and undermining their livelihoods. Rhinos are certainly under pressure, but there is much more at stake.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Embryo plus: fertility and assisted reproductive techniques
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) de la Rey, Morné, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
  • ItemOpen Access
    Game management under ranching and farming condition in the Czech Republic and Europe
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Kotrba, Radim (Maugli), author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Seasonal breeding of indigenous game species in fenced areas was documented from Upper Paleolithic time in some parts of Europe known as winter foddering of red deer, but expansion of fenced hunting game parks, where game was permanently present, has become widespread from Middle Ages. Nowadays, we can recognise in some countries of Europe two type of breeding of fenced game, extensive called as deer/game parks or estates and intensive game farms with majority of deer farms. The deer farming as industry in Europe is recognised from early seventies last century in the most countries even some small hobby breeders has been always present. In general, game kept in parks and estates serve mainly for conservation of species and habitats and of course for trophy hunting. On the contrary deer is bred in farms mainly for meat production because of stable and controlled quality and for live sales because of outstanding quality. Nevertheless, we can recognise broad diversity of approaches based on game historical use, legislation and also environmental condition across Europe. Therefore, game is broadly considered and managed as wild under extensive fenced system and as domestic livestock with some exemptions on game farms. Historically, game in fenced areas owned by nobility helped to preserve indigenous species, but very often was also as place for introduction of exotics. Recently to release exotic species in wild or to keep them in game parks is prohibited by legal conditions in most countries, but usually permitted in farms. To recognise, what is exotic species is usually based on historical presence. Therefore, some ungulates originated in Asia or North America introduced one or more hundred years ago to game park, which established local populations in wild after escape, become hunted game in wild and in fenced areas as well and generally accepted. Talk will overview game management approaches, problems and challenges in Europe based on hunter's and/or meat producer's perspective frame it in conservation effect and giving examples not only from the Czech Republic.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The controversy around the conservation value of captive-bred lions
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Potgieter, Pieter, JJS, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The conservation value of captive-bred lions is seriously questioned by most conservation minded people - to such an extent that they refuse to admit that these lions can make an enormous contribution towards the enhancement of the lion in the wild. Reasons offered range from alleged genetic contamination to captive-bred lions' alleged inability to adapt to conditions in the wild, including their alleged inability to acquire the social skills to function successfully in a pride. These allegations seem to be inspired by either a lack of understanding of the realities driving the decline of lion populations in Africa or a misunderstanding of the objectives and intentions of the captive-bred lion industry of South Africa or both. Notwithstanding unethical conduct and practices by lion farmers uncovered from time to time the industry at large is functioning on the principle of sustainable use. It exploits, by consumptive as well as non-consumptive use, a very esteemed and iconic game species economically, thereby generating a livelihood for self and for local communities. However, the industry is acutely aware of its responsibility to contribute to the survival and welfare of the lions in the wild. This responsibility is operationalised through various projects, including scientific research, financial support for lion conservation and, ultimately, there-establishment of lions in areas in Africa where they have become extinct.
  • ItemOpen Access
    American bison: Relic symbol? Domesticated novelty? Rewilding dream?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Benson, D. E., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The US Congress and President unanimously agreed on a national mammalian symbol with the National Bison Legacy Act of 2016. The law is entirely symbolic and could mean nothing to socially and ecologically rewild bison which might have totaled 30-60 million: the last clause of the bill reads "Nothing in this act or the adoption of the North American bison as the national mammal of the United States shall be construed or used as a reason to alter, change, modify, or otherwise affect any plan, policy, management decision, regulation, or other action by the federal government." Approximately 500,000 bison (20,000 plains and 10,000 wood bison) live in 62 conservation herds in the Great Plains and boreal forests of North America. Perhaps 15,000 bison are free-ranging and able to function ecologically. Relic extant populations persisted since near extirpation during the 1800s in Yellowstone National Park (4,900), and were restored on other public lands. Most numbers, 90 percent, were introduced to fenced private and tribal lands, bred for meat, husbanded as novelties and exhibits, or fostered for ecological and social considerations. The rewilding dream is limited by human populations and infrastructures, land uses, fragmented suitable landscapes, and attitudes that are incompatible with free-roaming wild herds of 1/2 to one ton ungulates. Mangers with governments, tribes, organizations, and private lands seek uncertain futures for bison considering legislation, land use alternatives, economics, social perspectives, dreams, and actions that not all can agree. Must we accept symbolic management of relics or ecologically rewild our dreams.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Manyara Ranch: a potential model for wildlife management in Tanzania
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Pole, Aistair, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Tanzania is a country blessed with incredible natural resources and abundant wildlife. It has the potential to have one of the most successful and viable wildlife industries in Africa. However, its policies do not support local level user rights and it has no models on which to base successful wildlife ranching. It is believed that the country would benefit enormously from an established model of a successful wildlife ranch which can then also have an influence on policy formulation to create the right environment for the growth of a wildlife industry. Manyara Ranch provides an ideal opportunity to achieve this. It is a 45,000 acre ranch in the Masaai Steppe of northern Tanzania that forms a critical corridor for wildlife movement between Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park and Lake Natron to the north in one of the continents most recognised and game rich landscapes. As a result, it has good wildlife populations with some being resident but most migrating through the area. Manyara Ranch is held in Trust for the benefit of its neighbouring communities but has suffered decades of mismanagement and poor performance as a mixed wildlife and livestock operation. In 2013 the African Wildlife Foundation took over management of the ranch and much has been done to improve the situation and develop a plan for the future development into a model wildlife and livestock operation. Critical to this has been the re engagement with the neighbouring communities and gaining their trust and support.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Hunting & sustainable utilization within Sabi Game Park, Mozambique, and the benefits thereof to the local Mangalana community
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Robertson, Kevin, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Sabi Game Park is a hunting concession in Mozambique. 28 000 ha in size, it borders the south-eastern boundary with, and is open to the Greater Kruger National Park. A well-managed, scientifically monitored sport hunting operation generates the funds needed to sustainably run this property. These funds are also used to drive an aggressive anti-poaching operation and they are sufficient to support financially as well, the local community. Only when the local community comes to realize the economic benefits of wildlife conservation will it protect it. This is a concept which Sabi Game Park is in the process of putting into place and the results thereof are now being seen. This presentation gives the hunting operation's facts and figures and explains how, through strategic partnerships and community governance support, this conservation initiative is possible.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Closing thoughts & future
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Benson, D. E., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
  • ItemOpen Access
    Can cheetahs and wildlife ranchers ever live in co-existence?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Marker, Laurie, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Large carnivores are currently facing severe threats and are experiencing substantial declines in their populations and geographical ranges around the world (Ripple et al., 2014). Human-wildlife conflict is a risk to 31% of the global carnivore species (IUCN Red List, 2016). The vast majority of Namibia's cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) (over 90%) and other large carnivores reside outside of national parks. Namibia is made up of a mosaic of land uses which includes both privately owned mixed livestock and wildlife unfenced farms, fenced game farms, and open communal and commercial conservancies. Fences are meant to protect biodiversity however; fences have an ecological impact by blocking migration movements especially in arid ecosystems. The fences confine individuals in turn carnivore abundance may exceed their available resources leading to a potential rapid decline of the population or local extinction. Commercial farmers have utilised game fences to keep and protected their game which equates to their livelihood. However, game fenced farmers catch more cheetahs than that of livestock farmers (Marker et al. 2010). As more game fences are erected, the rate of human-wildlife conflict has increased, which is an issue not only for the cheetah but all large carnivores across Namibia. CCF's research over the years has uncovered the complex relationships between individual cheetahs, their competition such as leopards and their prey base. By understanding these relationships it is possible to share information on how these influences affect cheetahs on game ranching farms and in turn how farmers can farm in co-existence. CCF's Future Farmers of Africa (FFA) project is a multifaceted integrated programme as it aims to help farmers with both human and environmental issues through education. CCF has created a set of integrated programmes aimed at addressing the principle threats to the cheetah by developing simple techniques through their FFA's programme and farmer training workshops. These tools include; livestock guarding dogs and swing gates that allow free movement of animals across game farms. These tools have already reduced the rate of human-wildlife conflict and help to maintain a viable population of carnivores across Namibia's conservancies. Through education CCF believes that both commercial and communal farmers can successfully live together with large carnivores across Namibia now and in the future.
  • ItemOpen Access
    How does government regulations and institutional decisions affect our wildlife, communities and green economy?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Kitshoff-Botha, Adri, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    There were trends over the past few years where decisions by Governments, wildlife services and parastatals had a direct negative effect on our wildlife, communities and green economy. These included bans on trophy hunting, imports and transports. On the other hand, there are also government departments introducing enabling legislation to the benefit of our wildlife and communities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Zimbabwe wildlife industry: a brief overview
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) La Grange, N. J., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    1. History - Brief overview of the origins of the wildlife industry in Zimbabwe, including Operation Noah, and the formation of the Parks and Wildlife Department. 2. Introduction of the 1975 Parks and Wildlife Act - what this meant for the industry and what the consequences of this decision were. 3. CAMPFIRE - The Act was amended to include communal areas and the people living in those areas, which allowed the birth of CAMPFIRE. 4. Growth of the Industry – private landowners invested heavily in wildlife, hunting and tourism boomed, Zimbabwe became an example of what could be done. 5. Role of the Veterinary Department -regulating movements of certain animals became necessary; policies were established to protect EU beef exports. Formation of Wildlife Unit. 6. Changing policies - the effects of the land redistribution drive. Formation of new policies, and the subsequent changing face of the industry. 7. Current Role Players - the various groups involved, the motivation out of passion for wildlife. Zimbabwe Wildlife Association. 8. Conservancies - highlighting the success of large areas designated for wildlife use, the challenges and opportunities. 9. Cecil! The aftermath, consequences, and the power of social media. 10. Ethics and transparency - with the spotlight now on us, we need to be careful. 11. Looking forward - what lies ahead will be determined by the attitudes and determination of those involved. Zimbabwe relies heavily on the tourism and hunting industry, and so we need to find ways of supporting the wildlife industry through unity and a common goal. Zimbabwe - once a proud leader in the wildlife industry - has lost its place on the pedestal of world conservation. However all is not lost. Through the passion and determination of its people, Zimbabwe is trying to reclaim its rightful place again. As humans and wildlife struggle for existence at the coal face, the things that are beneficial, and those that are detrimental, become apparent. The lessons learnt will help carry the industry forward, and others will be able to draw on our experiences.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Game ranching in South Africa: its contribution to the economy, to conservation and to biodiversity
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Oberem, Peter, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Wildlife ranching in South Africa is a relatively young industry which has grown at unforeseen rates to an industry bigger than the dairy or the sugar industries in this country. Its history, development, the contribution, as a sustainable form of agriculture, made to the South African economy, decent job creation, food security and to conservation and biodiversity is discussed. Future possible contributions, as future goals of Wildlife Ranching South Africa, are also enunciated.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sustainable use as a function of biodiversity and agricultural development: exploring the impacts of dysfunctional conservation jurisprudence
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Dry, G. C., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Game ranching in the RSA takes place on 20 million ha of agricultural land and makes a far bigger contribution to biodiversity than dated conservation (preservation) regulatory regimes 'enforced' on agricultural land that is not, and never will be, conservation land. CoP17, CITES, IUCN or the South African NEMBA do not recognise or count any animals in game ranching on semi-extensive and game-fenced agricultural land as "wild animals", e.g. the Red List data recently released. This means, in effect, that game farmed on semi-extensive land does not reside under the international intent, governance, conventions or resolutions. The above mentioned agencies do not count any farmed game on private game ranches, given their definitions of "wild animals" in the "wild". This year for instance, the USA Fish and Wildlife Services advised South Africa that in terms of the USA ESA listing, stricter measures to import hunted lion or bontebok trophies, will be enforced regardless whether wild or captive bred. The hunter must now be in a position to prove "enhancement in the wild". The Architect of the Universe stopped making land; not humanity. Land will be shared by growing populations, agricultural development and conservation ideology. Key wildlife recovery in Africa is not technical or ecological, but carefully crafted legal and performance measures to ensure sustainable use. International dysfunctional jurisprudence leads to declining conservation and community development on the African continent, and is not self-correcting.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Verifying conservation in wildlife ranches: the verified conservation area approach
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Vorhies, Francis, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The presentation introduces the Verified Conservation Area (VCA) Approach and its usefulness for the wildlife ranching industry. The VCA Approach offers an innovative way for land managers to demonstrate their efforts to conserve nature. It consists of an online Registry of VCAs; a Standard for conservation planning, reporting and auditing; and a Toolkit of best practice. The VCA Approach enables conservation outside of protected areas to be visible, accountable and marketable. It offers the wildlife ranching industry a way to inform investors, clients, authorities, local communities and other stakeholders on how their ranches are conserving nature.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Report-back on proposed Wildlife Advocacy Group
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Sas-Rolfes, Michael 't, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher