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  • ItemEmbargo
    My experience as a student-researcher in a university-level research process: an autoethnographic study
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Muralidharan, Ananya, author; Beer, Laura E., advisor; Knight, Andrew J., advisor; Jones, Tiffany, committee member
    Graduate students' perspectives on being involved in the research process in academia is not a common topic in research literature. Specifically, researchers have not often studied graduate students' roles in faculty-led projects. Despite students having experiences being a part of faculty-led projects, they have not used autoethnography to explore their involvement. As a result, this process may be unknown and intimidating for graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe and understand my experiences as a graduate student-researcher involved in a faculty-led research study. The guiding research questions were as follows: 1) What were my experiences as a graduate student- researcher in a faculty-led research process? 2) How did this experience affect my identity development as a graduate student? I categorized findings into three themes: (a) Graduate Student Identity Development (IDD as a researcher, IDD as a student of color, emotions alongside GSIDD), (b) Research Patterns in Academics (observed patterns in faculty, observed patterns in students & comparing their approach with faculty), and (c) Power Dynamics (observed power dynamics, sensitive conversations). Using an autoethnographic approach, I explored my participation in a faculty-led study to offer insight into how this process affected my graduate student identity development, and how the power dynamics present in student-advisor and student-faculty relationships played a role in this process. These findings provide insight into my experiences being a part of the faculty-led research study and highlight that more student-led research is needed in this space of academia. Discussion about connections between codes and subthemes, connections between the literature and my experiences, reflections on conducting this thesis, and suggestions for students and faculty are included. This thesis contributes to literature by addressing topics like advisor-advisee relationships, power dynamics, and graduate student identity development.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Three embedded choral improvisation etudes
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2023) DiFebo, Jake, author; David, James M., advisor; Pendergast, Seth, advisor; Coffino, Cara, committee member
    Choral music educators often have to choose between sticking to their concert cycle or sacrificing some of that time to prioritize musical creativity. Teacher-Composers have recently worked to solve this issue by writing new works that scaffold the singers in the harmonic structure or rhythmic framework before calling for improvisation. Thus teachers can make low stakes musical creation part of the traditional performance. While structured improvisation is common within standard vocal jazz repertoire, a small percentage of high schools actually have vocal jazz programs – it is far more common to have a jazz band. In the name of equity and in order to help cultivate the creativity of young singers, they too must be actively engaged in meaningful musical creation. The following are three etudes each written to focus on a different aspect of vocal improvisation: Melodic choices in Living for the Now, Rhythmic in Pic-nic Tricks for Kicks, and Syllabic in Cognizant Consonance. The preceding sections of composed material scaffold the following improvisational sections, encouraging the singers to hone in on their choice-making.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A conductors guide to the use of ensemble pedaling and acoustic recreation of electronic delay processing in the wind band music of Viet Cuong
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2023) Pouncey, Benjamin Allen, author; Phillips, Rebecca L., advisor; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Taylor, James, committee member; Doe, Sue, committee member
    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a conductor's analysis of two unique orchestration techniques utilized in Viet Cuong's wind band music. Viet Cuong (b. 1990) is an award–winning contemporary American composer whose eclectic sound has been described as "alluring" and "wildly inventive" by The New York Times. Two approaches to orchestration have been identified by the composer as distinctive elements of his compositional voice: ensemble pedaling, and the acoustic recreation of electronic delay processing. Sound and Smoke (2011) is Cuong's earliest available work for wind band and exemplifies early application of these techniques. Over the course of his career, Cuong has continued to employ and develop these approaches in select works, including Vital Sines (2022). Therefore, this document provides detailed examination of ensemble pedaling, and the acoustic recreation of electronic delay processing appearing in Cuong's Sound and Smoke, with select examples provided from Vital Sines to serve as a comparison of these techniques in the composer's recent body of work. The research conducted was completed concurrently with the Colorado State University Wind Symphony's performance preparation of Sound and Smoke in the 2023 spring semester. The information presented serves as a resource for the preparation and performance of Viet Cuong's music for wind band.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Concerto da tana del drago: using flexible instrumentation and mixed difficulty level music for ensembles affected by the COVID-19 pandemic
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2023) Matchey, Gideon, author; David, James, advisor; Johnson, Erik, committee member; Doe, Sue, committee member
    The Covid-19 pandemic provided music educators with unique challenges in recruiting and retaining students in their instrumental music ensembles. Faced with reduced student numbers, some ensembles are left with non-standard instrumentation. Although some schools are able to maintain the general structure of their programs, other directors are forced to combine different grade and skill levels in order to have at least one complete ensemble. For these ensembles, music of not only flexible instrumentation but also mixed difficulty (grade) levels is necessary for all students' learning levels to be met. Concerto da Tana del Drago meets the needs of these ensembles in providing music that is flexible in instrumentation, contains mixed difficulty levels, provides teachable content, and engages students with programmatic music suitable for many age levels.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Examining student experiences of choice in reflective practice through the lens of self-efficacy
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2023) Falls, Kristen Breann, author; Johnson, Erik, advisor; Bacon, Joel, committee member; Decker, Derek, committee member
    Preservice music teachers starting their first course in a music education program often find themselves under the pressure felt by grades, an overload of new information, and teaching public school students for the first time. Music teacher educators combat the pressure not only by giving reassuring and positive feedback but also by introducing developmental tools to help teachers improve themselves. Scholars have shown that reflective practice is an effective tool for teacher development (Piety et al., 2010; Kennedy et al., 2013; Korthagen & Evelein, 2015, Prilop et al., 2019). There are also varying thoughts on how to best implement reflective practice for the most effective development process, including the framing of teacher self- efficacy and professional identity during preservice music education programs. Yet, there are many differences between how degree programs approach these aspects of teacher development (Lee, 2007; Stanley, 2022). This study continued the exploration of student experiences in reflective practice and how the choice of reflective modalities can increase student agency, and in effect, teacher self-efficacy. Quantitative data for teacher self-efficacy was collected using an adapted version of the Preservice Music Teacher Efficacy measure (Prichard, 2013). The findings of this preliminary study help to expand the knowledge of how preservice music teachers choose reflective practice modalities and how those choices impact their self-efficacy. Implications for this study are framed in both theoretical and practical realms.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Colorado secondary ensemble teachers' perceptions of the integration of students with disabilities
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2023) Gray, Samuel David, author; Johnson, Erik, advisor; Bacon, Joel, committee member; Lopes, Tobin, committee member
    Inclusive practices are required of K-12 educators regarding the inclusion and integration of students with special needs through the Individuals with Disabilities Act (1975) and the Every Student Succeeds Act (2015). However, barriers to integrating students with disabilities may exist in secondary performing ensembles. These barriers include paraprofessional staffing, educator efficacy, community stakeholder expectations, and educator professional development. Implementing and understanding these barriers is vital to providing secondary music educators with the proper tools to provide an integrated performing ensemble. While the inclusion of students with disabilities often occurs in a performing ensemble, the scope of integration may vary depending on educator decisions. When an educator faces this situation, understanding any decisional difference is needed. The purpose of this study is to investigate Colorado music educators' perceptions regarding the current practices of inclusion and integration of students with disabilities in Colorado's secondary public schools (middle or high schools). Furthermore, this study examines educators' perceptions regarding inclusive practices where students with disabilities are included in ensemble settings. This study can help inform discussions, methods, and policies related to the professional development of in-service educators and pre-service educator preparatory programs regarding the integration and inclusion of students with disabilities. In this study, the following research questions were asked: What is the level of concern and self-efficacy of Colorado secondary music educators about integrating students with disabilities? What is the relationship between years of teaching experience, concerns, and self-efficacy about the inclusion and integration of students with disabilities? Do Colorado secondary music teachers vary in their level of concern and teaching efficacy at various stages of their career or by school location? The adapted SACIE-R and TSES questionnaire included the concerns subset of the Sentiments, Attitudes, and Concerns about Inclusive Education – Revised Scale (Forlin et al., 2011) and the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). Both scales utilized a four-point Likert scale. Data was compiled from mid-November through early mid-December of 2022. Findings from this preliminary investigation indicate that as educator experience increases, the level of educator concern about integrating students with disabilities decreases. Additional findings suggest no statistical significance between educator district setting and the level of concern and efficacy about students with disabilities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Remote learning: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on music therapy students' perceived skills and concerns regarding internships
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Schmidt, Shealyn D., author; Knight, Andrew, advisor; LaGasse, Blythe, committee member; Graham, James, committee member
    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-perceived skills and concerns of music therapy (MT) undergraduate and graduate equivalency students, who studied in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study implemented a cross-sectional survey design, using Likert scale questions from Clements-Cortés's 2019 study about music therapy students' self-perceived skills and concerns regarding internship, published in the Journal of Music Therapy. The researcher used validation measures to condense the original survey from 53 to 25 questions. Participants were also asked to indicate the amount of remote learning (high, medium, or low), student level (graduate equivalency or undergrad) and their current internship status. A Qualtrics survey link was sent to students via music therapy student organizations' social media pages, and resulted in a sample of fifty-two student participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Kruskal Wallis H test with Bonferroni correction was used to determine significant differences between perception of skill or concerns and the amount of remote learning or student level (grad or undergrad). The highest self-perceived skill of UG participants was Professional Relationships and the lowest was Piano Improvisation. The highest self-perceived skill of GE students was Creative MT Technique Knowledge and Use and the lowest was Handling Stress. The highest self-perceived concern of UG was Making Spontaneous Adaptations and the lowest was Handling Session Unpredictability. The highest self-perceived concern of GE was Finances and the lowest was Handling Session Unpredictability. Results indicated that participants perceived benefits and drawbacks of remote learning. The amount of remote learning (high, medium, low) showed significant differences were found for perception of skills among high-remote internship students, and for skills and concerns among students with high in person internship and high-remote practicum categories. The majority of significant results were found in the high-remote practicum category. There were no significant differences found within the in-person practicum category. As compared with pre-internship undergraduate MT students in Clements-Cortés (2019) study, pre-interns in the current study rated themselves as more skilled on 9 of 12 items. However, post-interns in the current study rated themselves as less skilled on all 12 items. Pre-interns in the current study rated themselves as less concerned than pre-interns in Clements-Cortés (2019) study on 9 of 13 items. However, post-interns in the current study rated themselves as less concerned on all 13 items. In MT students' written responses about the impact of remote learning, the most frequently reported disadvantages included fewer in-person experiences and technological difficulties. The most frequent advantages reported included learning (specifically an increase in knowledge) and convenience. Individual perspectives appeared to impact whether certain elements of remote learning were seen as positive or negative thing. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and remote learning technology will likely continue to be used. Further research about the use of remote technology in music therapy education can help to gain insight on how to make the internship and profession more accessible for students.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A guide to the performance of Love and Light by Brian Balmages
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Middleton, Ryan James, author; Phillips, Rebecca L., advisor; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Mallette, Dawn, committee member; Taylor, Jayme, committee member
    Brian Balmages is a renowned American composer in the band profession. This thesis is the first formal study of Brian Balmages and his compositions. The author provides a detailed biographical account of the composer's musical background as well as an overview of his works and contributions to music education, both derived from an interview and written communication with Balmages. Although Balmages is well known for his significant contributions to the repertoire of developing ensembles, his 2020 composition Love and Light exemplifies his ability to express his compositional voice in a more intricate and expansive setting. The piece was commissioned in January 2019 by Elizabeth Elliott. This document provides a detailed account of the inception and premiere of the piece, based primarily on interviews with Elliott and Balmages. These personal accounts are vital in understanding the impact of the piece both within and beyond the music community. A detailed theoretical analysis of Love and Light completes this study, covering a wide array of musical elements, including form, melody, harmony, rhythm, orchestration, texture, dynamics, and use of borrowed musical material. Throughout the theoretical analysis, rehearsal and performance considerations for conductors and ensemble members are highlighted.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Adam Gorb's Bohemian Revelry: a conductor's analysis and performance guide
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Kasper, Matthew, author; Phillips, Rebecca L., advisor; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Kenney, Wes, committee member; Balgopal, Meena, committee member
    Adam Gorb is a British composer whose works have been performed worldwide and received much critical acclaim. His ability to blend many musical styles and influences within individual pieces and the utilization of varied sound colors and textures has resulted in a distinct compositional voice among contemporary composers, specifically in the wind band genre. Gorb's composition Bohemian Revelry was composed in 2013 for the Bromley Youth Concert Band and has since been distinguished by the World Association of Symphonic Bands and Ensembles (WASBE) as a significant work. This thesis provides an in-depth study of Bohemian Revelry, further exploring the influences behind Gorb's compositional voice and his process for composing this work. Study of the unique characteristics of traditional Czech folk songs and dance styles reveal how Gorb assimilates them into his own compositional voice. The results of this analytic research culminate in a set of rehearsal considerations that can be utilized by other conductors and musicians in future performances of this piece. Interviews were conducted with the composer and conductor Timothy Reynish to provide additional insights and perspectives about Bohemian Revelry, Gorb's other compositions for winds, and his impact on wind band music. This document also provides updated biographical information about Gorb and works completed since 2011.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An investigation of emerging music courses in Colorado secondary schools
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Cort, Madeleine Amy, author; Johnson, Erik, advisor; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Decker, Derek, committee member
    Emerging Music Courses (EMCs) are music classes for secondary students outside of traditional ensemble offerings and include courses in composition, music theory, music technology, guitar, piano, and general music. These classes are a growing trend and serve as an access point to music learning for students who play an instrument not offered in ensembles, are not enrolled in traditional ensemble courses, or have musical interests outside of ensemble performance (Abril & Gault, 2008; Kubik, 2018; Sanderson, 2014; Veronee, 2017). Though these courses are popular choices for students (Pendergast & Robinson, 2020) and viable options for teachers looking to increase their course offerings (Freedman, 2019; Sanderson, 2014), music educators historically lack training in the pedagogical practices of these courses (Kubik, 2018; Ruthmann, 2006; Sanderson, 2014). Additionally, there is a lack of research surrounding the EMCs currently being offered by Colorado secondary schools and the practices of experienced EMC educators. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EMCs in Colorado's secondary public schools, examine the learning activities currently used in EMCs, explore the beliefs teachers have about music learning in the context of EMCs, and assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on these courses. Findings suggest that a variety of EMCs are offered in Colorado secondary schools, with general music, guitar, and piano as the top three most offered courses. Learning activities in EMCs appear to focus on performing, reading, and appreciating music, in addition to applying skills learned outside of the classroom. The COVID-19 Pandemic affected the enrollment in and availability of EMCs and, to a lesser extent, the instructional delivery of EMCs. Results from follow-up interviews suggest that educators believe EMCs are valuable to their professional goals and students, but more training and preparation is needed in order for teachers to feel confident in their curricular design and delivery.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison between neuroscience- and DIR/Floortime™-informed approaches within music therapy: a descriptive case study
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Shinn, Haley, author; LaGasse, A. Blythe, advisor; Wilhelm, Lindsey, committee member; Hepburn, Susan, committee member
    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences of client and therapist behaviors between a neuroscience-informed approach and a DIR/Floortime™-informed approach for one child involved in music therapy. There are no current studies comparing how the two approaches differently facilitate social skills. The author examined five videos from a neuroscience-informed approach and five videos from a DIR/Floortime™-informed approach and coded seven non-musical social skill behaviors, four musical social skill behaviors, and seven therapist behaviors. The author observed how a music therapist assisted in skill development, responded to and interacted with their client, and utilized the music between approaches and how those changes between approaches affected client social skill behaviors. In the neuroscience approach, there was a higher prevalence of six of the client behaviors and three of the therapist behaviors. In the DIR approach, there was a higher prevalence of five of the client behaviors and four of the therapist behaviors. Descriptive statistics and visual analysis indicated that multiple client behaviors were similar between approaches while the therapist behaviors had more differences between the two approaches. The author discusses why the differences may have been observed and clinical implications for working the client and using each approach within treatment. Further studies are needed to explore these different approaches.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparing the effects of rhythmic and musical cueing on a volitional movement in older adults with Parkinson's disease
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Smith, Ryan Alexander, author; LaGasse, A. Blythe, advisor; Knight, Andrew, committee member; Tracy, Brian, committee member
    Music therapists who work from a neuroscience-informed approach use auditory cueing to facilitate movement exercises when working on motor goals with older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). There is minimal research, however, comparing the effects of different auditory cueing techniques on the kinematic parameters of volitional arm movements in older adults with PD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of auditory cueing types––no auditory cues, rhythmic cues, and sonified musical cues––on the movement smoothness and movement variance of repetitive, volitional arm movements in older adults with PD. Seven older adults with PD and ten college students completed three trials of a repetitive arm reaching task in each of three auditory cueing conditions. The position of each participant's wrist was recorded in three dimensions using an infrared motion capture system at 120Hz. Data from the kinematics system were processed to compute two indicators of movement performance–normalized jerk (NJ), an indicator of movement smoothness; and spatiotemporal index (STI), a measure of movement path variance–for each participant. No significant differences in STI or NJ were observed between groups in the no cueing condition. Between-condition analysis demonstrated a significant difference in NJ between the no cueing condition and rhythmic cueing condition such that NJ values were larger, and therefore movements were less smooth, in the rhythmic cueing condition. There were no statistically significant differences in STI between cueing conditions. Exploratory analysis, however, revealed that there is a trend of decreased movement performance in the rhythmic cueing condition and improved movement performance in the sonified musical cueing condition for participants in the PD group. These findings were unexpected and warrant future research to determine which working mechanisms are the facilitators of change in auditory cueing-based rehabilitation of volitional movements.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A guide to the performance of James M. Stephenson’s Symphony No. 2: Voices for Concert Band
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Peterson, Myron S., author; Phillips, Rebecca L., advisor; Doe, Sue, committee member; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Kenney, Wes, committee member; Leslie, Drew, committee member
    James M. Stephenson is an American composer whose compositions are lauded by critics, performed on multiple continents, and recognized with prestigious awards from respected intuitions. His Symphony No. 2: Voices for Concert Band won the 2017 National Band Association William D. Revelli Composition Contest, and the 2018 Sousa-ABA-Ostwald Composition Contest. It was commissioned by "The President's Own" United States Marine Band and Colonel Jason Fettig. It was premiered on December 14, 2016 at the Midwest Clinic: International Band and Orchestra Conference at the McCormick Place in Chicago, Illinois. This thesis infuses James M. Stephenson's personal and intimate knowledge of his Symphony No. 2: Voices for Concert Band with a theoretical analysis to provide conductors, performers, and other musically curious patrons insight into understanding its performance. A granular analysis of this symphony examines theoretical topics such as form, melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, texture, orchestration, instrumentation, and unifying thematic material. The theoretical analysis then combines insights from Stephenson about the symbolic and emotional development of the piece, along with salient rehearsal considerations. Finally, this paper documents current influences on Stephenson's work and his broader views on composing, composers, and the state of wind bands in general.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Student perceptions of online peer learning in preservice music teacher education: motivation, social-emotional learning, and classroom climate
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Herman, Christina Haarala, author; Johnson, Erik, advisor; Decker, Derek, committee member; Bacon, Joel, committee member
    Music instruction has historically depended upon a master-apprentice model in which teacher-determined goals serve as the focal point of the classroom and reduce opportunities for collaboration among peers (Allsup, 2003; Green, 2008; Wis, 2002). However, collaborative learning practices, such as peer-assisted learning (PAL), have been established as effective instructional methods in a variety of music learning contexts (e.g., Alexander & Dorow, 1983; Duran et al., 2020; Goodrich, 2007; Johnson, 2013). Recently, scholars have extended investigations of collaborative learning practices into the realm of online learning environments (Altinay, 2017; Biasutti, 2011; Raymond et al., 2016; Shawcross, 2019; Thorpe, 2002). Peer-assisted learning experiences have been identified as one of many successful strategies for meeting the diverse needs of students in online contexts (Altinay, 2017; Keppell et al., 2006; McLuckie & Topping, 2004; Raymond et al., 2016; Razak & See, 2010); however, there is a lack of scholarly literature surrounding online PAL in the context of preservice music teacher education Though online learning is not new in the realm of formal education, rapidly developing technologies have increased the impact and prevalence of online learning in many educational settings, including preservice music teacher education (Dumford & Miller, 2018; Statti & Villegas, 2020; Sandrone & Schneider, 2020). Specifically, growing health and safety concerns related to the spread of disease in a global pandemic have necessitated a shift in the delivery of instruction from face-to-face settings to online classroom environments. Given the increasing demand for flexible online learning solutions, music educators would benefit from context-specific knowledge about the interaction of PAL solutions with online music learning environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore student perceptions of an online PAL experience in a preservice music teacher education course through the self-reported lenses of student motivation (Elliot, 1999), social-emotional learning (CASEL, 2003), and classroom climate (Dwyer et al., 2004; Moos, 1979). Quantitative data were collected via questionnaire measures (Coryn et al., 2009; Elliot & Muarayama, 2008; Kaufmann et al., 2016; Kaufmann & Vallade, 2020) and follow-up interviews were conducted with four participants who were selected using a maximum variation sampling approach (Jones et al., 2013; Raymond et al., 2016). Data revealed that student perspectives were likely influenced by their individual motivation orientation, capacity for social-emotional learning, and perception of the online classroom climate. Interview participants provided further context to these findings by sharing their individual experiences with group interactions, peer feedback, student connectedness, and course structure.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Active music making for patients with unilateral spatial neglect in the subacute stage of stroke
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Leeman, Kirsten, author; Knight, Andrew, advisor; LaGasse, Blythe, committee member; Witt, Jessica, committee member
    Unilateral neglect is the decreased awareness of events or items in the contralesional side of space, on the opposite side of the brain affected by a stroke. This study examined the effect of a music therapy procedure on the severity of unilateral spatial neglect in patients in the subacute stage of stroke. Three individuals were recruited from a large Midwestern hospital to participate in this study, all with a presentation of left neglect. One functional assessment (Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process) was completed at admission and discharge to measure severity of neglect during activities of daily living. Two written assessments (Line Bisection Test and Line Cancellation Test) were administered at the start and end of each music therapy session to examine any immediate effects. During each session, patients were asked to hit a paddle drum gradually moved from the non-neglected side of space (right) toward the neglected side of space (left) over the course of every four beats. Patients then completed musical sequences on resonator bells following a descending pattern, also directed right to left. Results showed inconsistent performance between and within sessions for all participants on the Line Bisection Test. Written performance varied for two participants on the Line Cancellation Test, while one participant showed no change from the second treatment session through hospital discharge. These preliminary findings support further exploration into the use of musical instruments as a possible intervention for neglect, though future research involving larger sample sizes or a control group is needed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Investigating the iso principle: the effect of musical tempo manipulation on arousal shift
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Goldschmidt, Daniel, author; Knight, Andrew, advisor; LaGasse, A. Blythe, committee member; Graham, James, committee member
    The iso principle is a well-known concept in music therapy practice wherein a clinician meets a client at a current body state with a musical element, then moves them to a new body state by modulating the musical element. However, few scholars agree on what bodily states and musical elements define the iso principle, which limits music therapy clinicians' targeted application of the concept. Further, it appears there have been no studies objectively addressing physiologic change during the iso principle. The purpose of this study was to investigate arousal shift during iso principle-informed tempo change in a musical stimulus. Arousal was measured via physiological responses (galvanic skin response [GSR]) and self-perception (self-assessment manikin [SAM]). Participants' (n = 9) took part in a randomized block design with control in which they completed a mindfulness-based intervention before listening to one of three five-minute auditory stimuli: 1) an iso principle-informed song, 2) a compensation principle-informed song, and 3) a spoken short story. GSR data from participants did not show statistically significant differences between the iso principle and compensation principle, but did show significant differences between musical conditions and speech. While the music was designed to increase arousal using the iso principle, overall there was a reduction in arousal levels over the experimental period. Participants' self-ratings of their arousal shifts (SAM scores of arousal) showed a perceived increase in arousal during all conditions. Limitations, clinical implications, and future directions are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Group music therapy for college-aged survivors of sexual violence: a mixed methods evaluation of participant perceptions and symptom reduction
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Fedor, Megan, author; Knight, Andrew, advisor; LaGasse, A. Blythe, committee member; Krafchick, Jen, committee member
    Previous research suggests that music therapy intervention may be helpful in the healing journey of survivors of sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1. What symptom changes did participants experience as a result of an eight-week music therapy group? 2. How did participants perceive their experiences in an eight-week music therapy group? This mixed methods study was conducted using a one group pretest-posttest concurrent triangulation design. Participants (N=5) completed pretest measures of the TSC-40 and an initial interview before completing an eight-week music therapy group. Upon conclusion of the program, participants (n=4) completed the posttest measures of TSC-40, posttest questionnaire, and semi-structured interview. Participants (n=4) demonstrated overall improvement in TSC-40 full scale and subsets from pretest to posttest suggesting efficacy of music therapy intervention. Furthermore, participants (N=5) reported positive perceptions of the music therapy group. An analysis of qualitative data revealed the eight coded themes of mood modulation, drumming, sense of community, emotional processing, vulnerability/opening, music therapy process, increased comfort, and coping skills. These eight coded subthemes overlapped to reveal the four broader themes of music, exploration and expression of trauma-associated feelings, formation of trust, and perceived positive change. Clinician-delivered interventions in the context of group music therapy have the potential to effect positive change for survivors of sexual violence. Future research should focus on replication of existing studies to address effectiveness of music therapy intervention across specific survivor subset populations with the goal of determining dosage, optimal program length, and most effective music therapy interventions. As individuals continue to be victimized and survivors continue to come forward, the music therapy field requires the creation and implementation of additional trauma-specific groups to meet the ongoing needs of college-aged survivors of sexual violence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    James M. David: the composer, his compositional style, and a conductor's analysis of Symphony No. 1 - Codex Gigas
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Loyd, Sheridan Monroe, author; Phillips, Rebecca L., advisor; David, James M., committee member; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Kenney, Wes, committee member; Kodrich, Kris, committee member
    This thesis provides the first formal study of James M. David and analysis of his compositions. Through extensive interviews with the composer, the author provides a biographical account of the composer's musical development and approach to composition, as well as a thorough description of the elements that constitute David's unique compositional voice. His musical background cultivated an extensive knowledge of modernist and post-modernist compositional techniques. By applying these methods within a tonal landscape, David creates works that are enjoyable for both musicians and audience. This document provides theoretical and rehearsal analyses of David's Symphony No. 1 - Codex Gigas (2019). This study is unique, in that interviews with David were conducted as he was composing the symphony, offering insight into his compositional approach throughout the experience. The author observed the duration of David's creative process, from initial sketches of the work to its completion in December 2019. David intended the work as a tribute to Czech-American composer Karel Husa, drawing inspiration from Husa's Music for Prague 1968 (1968) and Apotheosis of this Earth (1970). Music for Prague 1968 presents a message of protest and hope for the fate of the Czech people during a time of political uncertainty and fear. Apotheosis of this Earth warns of mankind's imminent destruction of the environment. David uses thematic, tonal, timbral, and rhythmic elements from both works as the foundation for his symphony. A second layer to Symphony No. 1 - Codex Gigas is its historical inspiration from the Codex Gigas, a medieval manuscript shrouded in mystery. Considered an attempt to contain all of the world's knowledge in one location, the Codex Gigas represents for David a persistent search for truth and wisdom. The book contains two large drawings: a vivid depiction of the devil lies opposite a separate image of the city of heaven. The unclear motive behind the drawings resulted in the book's nickname, the "Devil's Bible." David creates a musical representation of these dualities: good and evil, darkness and light, even enlightenment and ignorance. He considers the Codex Gigas a metaphor for the preservation of knowledge, and how information can be used for the good of society as well as for individual gain. With modern technology, information is available at the push of a button. However, the increased accessibility of information creates the opportunity for misinformation, often obscuring truth. David uses rational rhythms and diatonicism to portray knowledge and reason, while irrational rhythms and chromaticism portray ignorance and poor intentions. Altogether, the symphony manifests a new work presented within a historical context to communicate the underlying message that, in the face of disinformation, truth and enlightenment will prevail. Throughout Symphony No. 1 - Codex Gigas, David applies a contemporary approach to established compositional techniques from bygone musical eras, transforming them into innovative musical ideas. The work displays ingenuity in craftsmanship regarding David's treatment and variation of motives, meticulous creation of mathematical patterns, and detailed treatment of timbres and percussion voices. Although the basis for many of David's compositional techniques is very academic, their application within the work remains accessible to the listener. Through repetition and variation, David allows the listener to digest the alteration of themes and rhythmic ideas over the course of the work. Together, the four movements create a memorable musical experience, sure to take performers and audiences alike on an emotional journey.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A conductor's analysis: John Mackey's Wine-dark sea: symphony for band
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Weber, Shannon Denise, author; Phillips, Rebecca, advisor; Grapes, K. Dawn, committee member; Kenney, Wes, committee member; Pedrós-Gascón, Antonio, committee member
    This thesis provides a study of the composer John Mackey and his music. In the last twelve years, Mackey has become internationally renowned and one of the most widely performed composers in the band world. Mackey has received numerous awards and honors for his musical contributions. His unique compositional style is distinguishable in his works regardless of the genre. Audiences, conductors, and performers alike continue to find enjoyment in his music due to his creative, rhythmic, and unique scoring for winds and percussion. This document includes biographical information on the composer, provides insight into his compositional style, and thoroughly analyzes the symphony for band, Wine-Dark Sea. Wine- Dark Sea was commissioned in 2014 by Jerry Junkin and the University of Texas Wind Ensemble, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Sarah and Ernest Butler School of Music. The symphony is a programmatic piece that tells the story of Odysseus, Homer's hero from The Odyssey, through three exciting and dramatic movements. Distinctive characteristics of this piece include Mackey's unique use of meter changes, extended techniques in winds and percussion, and recurring programmatic themes. Wine-Dark Sea is Mackey's longest work to date, one of his most challenging works for performers and conductor, and is especially captivating for the audience.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An analysis of young-band repertoire in the context of culturally responsive teaching
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Bennett, Hollie E., author; Johnson, Erik, advisor; Phillips, Rebecca, advisor; Coffino, Kara, committee member; Pippen, John, committee member
    Repertoire is a highly discussed topic especially for band music educators (Battisti, 2018; Brewer, 2018; Dziuk, 2018; Koch, 2019; Mantie & Tan, 2019). Many educators even view the "repertoire as the curriculum" (Reynolds, 2000, p. 31) making it a core tenet of the band music classroom. Repertoire can be chosen using a variety of filtering systems including alignment with music education philosophy (Allsup, 2018; Elliott, 1995; Jorgensen, 2003; Reimer, 1959; Reimer, 2009), artistic merit (McCrann, 2016; Ostling, 1978; Ormandy, 1966) and potential for musical learning (Apfelstadt, 2000; Hopkins, 2013). However, many critics of band repertoire claim that it is limiting to inclusive education purposes pertinent to contemporary music education classrooms (Abril, 2003; Elpus & Abril, 2011; Elpus & Abril, 2019; DeLorenzo, 2012; Kratus, 2007; Lind & McKoy, 2016; Soto, 2018). While repertoire is important when taking into consideration the development of comprehensive musical dispositions that are required for students to fully engage with music in their lived experience. Many music teachers may use repertoire alone to foster connections with student cultural referents (DeLorenzo, 2019; Shaw, 2020). However, inclusive instructional approaches such as Culturally Responsive Teaching (Gay, 2010; Hammond, 2015; Ladson-Billings, 2009; Lind & McKoy, 2016), Multicultural Education (Banks, 2015; Banks, 2019; Nieto, 2009), and Funds of Knowledge (Amanti, Moll, & González, 2005; Rios-Aguilar, 2010) can help to address the multitude of diverse student needs within the music classroom (DeLorenzo, 2019; Ravitch, 2010; Shaw, 2010). Guided by the tenets of inclusivity, teachers are also called upon to consider the importance of student cultural validation, background knowledge, as well as becoming increasingly aware of diverse repertoire and increasingly flexible with instruction when selecting repertoire (Abril, 2009; DeLorenzo, 2012; Shaw, 2020). The aim of this study is to provide a framework to help clarify the unique relationship between repertoire for young wind band and opportunities for responsive, student-centered instructional approaches.