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LC-MS/MS determination of various drugs of abuse and metabolites in municipal wastewater effluent samples




McPeters, Ryley Adam, author
Dooley, Gregory, advisor
Hanneman, William, advisor
Borch, Thomas, committee member

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A method was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the quantification and confirmation of 8 drugs of abuse (cocaine, codeine, MDMA, methadone, methamphetamine, morphine, nicotine, and oxycodone) and their various metabolites (acetylmorphine, cotinine, EDDP, amphetamine and benzoylecgonine) in municipal wastewater effluent samples. Samples were collected once daily and drugs were extracted from the wastewater with solid phase extraction using Waters Oasis MCX cartridges. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and positive electrospray ionization was used along with dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry for identification and quantitation. The extraction method was validated with matrix matched spiked samples at the limits of quantitation (0.5 ng/mL to 30 ng/mL) for each analyte with recoveries ranging from 70%-140%. Deuterated internal standards for each analyte were used to correct for matrix effects, ion suppression, and sample preparation errors. The validated method was applied to municipal wastewater samples collected from a point source effluent into Fossil Creek, Fort Collins, CO. Eight of thirteen drugs being measured were found on a daily basis with the maximum being 307.72 mg/min of benzoylecgonine. Samples showed various spikes in drug concentration at 7 day intervals that corresponded with weekends.


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drugs of abuse


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