Filtration of Giardia cysts and other substances: Volume 2, slow sand filtration
Water treatment efficiency of slow sand filtration was studied under various design and operating conditions to ascertain removal of Giardia lamblia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, particles, and turbidity. Filter removals were assessed at hydraulic loading rates of 0.04, 0.12, and 0.40 m/hr, temperatures of 0°, 5°, and 17°C, effective sand sizes of 0.128, 0.278 and 0.615 mm, sand bed depths of 0.48 and 0.97 m, influent Giardia cyst concentrations of 50 to 5000 cysts/liter; and various conditions of filter biological maturity and influent bacteria concentrations. ...
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