Pseudo Pelger-Huët anomalies as potential biomarkers for acute radiation dose in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Hayes, Joshua Michael, author
Johnson, Thomas E., advisor
Bailey, Susan, committee member
Brandl, Alexander, committee member
Walrond, John, committee member
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The potential for malicious use of radiation, or radiation accidents could potentially lead to acute, high radiation doses to members of the public. Following an acute accidental exposure to high doses of radiation, medical intervention is pivotal to the survivability of the patient and the sooner the appropriate measures are taken the better the odds for survival. Early estimates of acute accidental radiation doses can be determined via biomarkers such as dicentric chromosome analysis or scenario reconstruction using computer software. However, both take valuable time, and can be expensive. Here, potentially faster, and cheaper quantitative biomarkers for radiation exposure were evaluated in acutely exposed Rhesus Macaques from the Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine. Increased frequencies of abnormal neutrophils in peripheral blood, referred to as pseudo Pelger-Huët anomalies (PPHAs), have been shown to be potential biomarkers of radiation exposure in several scenarios, including the 1958 Y-12 criticality accident and the radium dial painters. We have confirmed the PPHA morphology to be present in Rhesus Macaques and a dose response curve, a biokinetics model, and determination of background prevalence of the morphology has been constructed utilizing peripheral blood smears. The dose response curve consists of macaques that received doses ranging from 0 Gy to 8.5 Gy (LD90/30) and a blood smear at a common time point post-irradiation. The biokinetics model utilized only 4 Gy exposures and blood smears taken periodically over 3.1 years post-irradiation. Results show a linear correlation between PPHA concentration and acute radiation dose and the PPHA morphology appears stable over 3.1 years post-irradiation.
2021 Spring.
Includes bibliographical references.
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pseudo Pelger-Huët anomaly
rhesus macaque
Pelger-Huët anomaly
radiation biomarker
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