Not all questions fit in beakers - direct and indirect toxic effects of metal mixtures and the application of ecotoxicological experiments to derive better water quality standards and predict recovery after abandoned mine reclamation
Aqueous discharges from abandoned metal mines include complex mixtures of physical and chemical stressors. Consequently, identifying mechanisms and causal relationships between acid mine drainage (AMD) and community responses in the field is challenging. In addition to the direct toxicological effects associated with elevated concentrations of metals and reduced pH, mining activities influence aquatic organisms indirectly through physical alterations of habitat, including increased sedimentation, turbidity and substrate embeddedness. Although direct toxicity can sometimes be effectively studied ...
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