Linear combinations of GNSS phase observables to improve and assess TEC estimation precision
One of the principal observations derived from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) signals is ionospheric total electron content (TEC), which is a measure of the density of free electrons (i.e. ionosphere plasma density) integrated along the signal path. TEC is typically computed using the difference of dual-frequency signals from a GNSS satellite, thereby taking advantage of the frequency dispersive effects of ionosphere plasma on microwave-band propagation. However, it is difficult to distinguish between the ionosphere and other frequency-dependent effects, such as multipath and satellite ...
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Breitsch, Brian W.