Role of women's identification with math and academic major in women's susceptibility to stereotype threat and stereotype lift, The
A stereotype threat (ST) occurs when individuals underperform in a domain, for example in math, as a result of exposure to a relevant negative stereotype. Women engaged in math-intensive tasks can experience ST when negative stereotypes about women's math ability are made salient, via for example, test instructions that allege superior math performance by men. Evidence regarding the role of ST test instructions on women's math performances has been mixed (e.g., Bell, Spencer, Iserman, & Logel, 2003; Schmader, 2002). While prior studies found that women underperform in ST conditions that emphasize ...