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  • ItemOpen Access
    Identifying and evaluating factors that enhance former offenders' hiring-related outcomes
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Anderson, Kemol J., author; Cleveland, Jeanette, advisor; Gibbons, Alyssa, advisor; Dik, Bryan, committee member; Henle, Chris, committee member; Kraiger, Kurt, committee member
    Former offenders face several barriers to re-entry into society and the workplace. One such barrier includes employers' negative and unfounded attitudes of former offenders, which may lead to unfair bias in hiring. Crandall and Eshleman's (2003) justification-suppression model (JSM) posits that such prejudicial attitudes can be suppressed. Guided by the JSM theoretical framework, the current two-study project was designed to (1) identify prejudice suppression factors that might increase employers' willingness to hire former offenders – more specifically former minor drug offenders (FMDOs) and (2) test the efficacy of two suppression factors in a hypothetical hiring setting. Study 1 was an interview study of 13 employers, across several industries, on what factors made them more likely to consider hiring FMDOs. Thematic analysis results yielded 30 factors that were classified as situation-related, employer-related, and applicant-related suppression factors. The two most frequently endorsed prejudice suppression factors were: (1) evidence of the applicant's desistance & positive change, and (2) evidence of the applicant's honest disclosure of their background. In Study 2, the efficacy of these two suppression factors (desistance and disclosure) was tested to assess whether FMDOs' hiring-related outcomes were improved by manipulating suppressor evidence (desistance, disclosure, or no suppressor) and the offense type of the applicant (traffic offense, minor drug offense, and serious drug-related offense) in a hypothetical hiring context, for a retail sales associate position. Using a sample of 230 hiring managers in a retail setting, a significant main effect of offense type was found. No significant main effect was found for suppressor evidence on hiring recommendations. Neither offense type nor suppressor evidence was related to participants' concerns about hiring the applicants, or their proposed starting salary for applicants. Implications of these findings, alternative theoretical explanations, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Hormonal contraception and eating pathology: a study among undergraduate women
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Almengual, Mallory, author; Rickard, Kathryn, advisor; Prince, Mark, committee member; Cox-York, Kimberly, committee member; Graham, Dan, committee member
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive (HC) use and eating pathology, and to assess the moderating effects of cognitive restraint and other demographic features on this relationship among undergraduate women at Colorado State University. Method: A correlational study design was used to collect data from 458 female undergraduate participants through self-report assessments capturing demographic information, reproductive health history, and constructs associated with eating pathology. Specific measures included the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18), the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3), and the Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Participants were categorized based on their HC use—especially focusing on Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC) and Short-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (SARC)—to establish the connection between the type of HC and symptoms of eating pathology. Multiple linear regression analyses identified relationships, with a consideration of potential mediating effects of cognitive restraint and demographic variables. Results: Findings revealed a significant relationship between long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use and specific psychological outcomes, such as reduced interpersonal insecurity and increased emotional dysregulation, suggesting a multidimensional impact of HC types on psychological and behavioral patterns in this population. Although cognitive restraint was anticipated to be a moderating factor, the study did not find evidence to support a significant moderating effect on the relationship between HC use and eating pathology. Age of menstrual regularity emerged as a noteworthy covariate affecting psychological outcomes. Conclusion: The study offers important insights into the variant effects of different types of HCs on psychological health and eating behaviors among college-aged women. These findings indicate that different types of hormonal contraceptives may have unique effects on psychological outcomes and eating behaviors. The differential outcomes with LARC and SARC underscore the need for comprehensive, individualized reproductive health counseling that both addresses the potential psychological impacts of contraceptive methods and is sensitive to the evident disparities. Further research is recommended to decipher the complex interactions between HC use, cognitive restraint, and eating pathology. These findings have critical implications for refining clinical practices and reproductive health education to promote the wellbeing and bodily autonomy of menstruating individuals, and to better address the mental health needs related to contraceptive choices.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring daily-level characteristics of the cannabis-exercise relationship
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Stallsmith, Vanessa T., author; Karoly, Hollis, advisor; Prince, Mark, committee member; Graham, Dan, committee member; Bell, Chris, committee member
    Physical inactivity is a growing public health concern. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only 53.3% of U.S. adults meet the recommendation for aerobic physical activity, and alarmingly, only 23.2% meet the recommendation for both aerobic and muscle-training activity. This leads researchers to wonder what strategies or behaviors may facilitate exercise engagement. Interestingly, preliminary research has shown that cannabis, one of the most widely used substances in the United States, may be positively related to physical activity. However, most research on cannabis and exercise has been cross-sectional and administered low doses of low-THC cannabis, which is not representative of common legal-market cannabis products or typical use patterns in the U.S. Additionally, these studies did not evaluate other factors that may occur in the context of the cannabis-exercise relationship such as affect. The current study will leverage a daily-diary design to explore relationships between exercise, cannabis use, and affect. It will also characterize a sample of participants who both use cannabis and frequently exercise in terms of their demographics, cannabis use, exercise engagement, exercise enjoyment, goal attainment, and motives for combining cannabis with exercise. Overall, this study aims to (1) characterize daily-level associations between exercise engagement and cannabis use, (2) explore daily-level associations between exercise engagement and affect over the course of the study, and (3) utilize descriptive statistics to characterize the sample in order to understand who is likely to use cannabis and exercise, how they do it, why, and their resultant experiences.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Emotion's role in challenging interpersonal contexts and substance use: a multilevel mediation analysis
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Mataczynski, Maggie, author; Emery, Noah, advisor; Prince, Mark, committee member; Riggs, Nathaniel, committee member; Tompkins, Sara Anne, committee member
    Emotions have a well-established role in substance use, however there are several mixed findings on how exactly positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) influence substance use. Interpersonal contexts are known to influence both emotions and substance use, especially among youth. This study attempted to clarify the relationship of emotions and substance use by hypothesizing that there is a cascade effect of challenging interpersonal contexts (CICs) that facilitate acute changes in PA and NA which, in turn, leads to increased substance use. This study used secondary data from a parent ecological momentary assessments (EMA) study to examine the links between CICs, emotions, and substance use in a sample of young adult college students. Multilevel path analysis results echoed other studies in that an occurrence of a CIC was associated with participants feeling overall worse at the same moment (more NA, less PA). Interestingly, at the within-person level, PA at the previous moment exhibited a significant positive direct effect on substance use at the next moment. CICs at the previous moment exhibited an indirect effect on substance use at the next moment through acute changes in PA at the within level. CICs also exhibited a direct positive effect on substance use at the between-person level. There were no significant observed effects for NA at either the within- or between-person level. Our study replicated how CICs can make individuals feel worse while also indicating unique findings of PA's role in how CICs are associated with substance use.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The scientific rigor of parental alienation studies: a quality assessment of the peer reviewed research
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Marsden, Joshua, author; Harman, Jennifer, advisor; French, Kimberly, committee member; Bright, Charlotte, committee member; Tompkins, Sarah Anne, committee member
    Parental Alienation (PA), a form of family violence, has negative outcomes for children and parents. Despite being a generative field of science, some critics contest the validity of PA research. Utilizing the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) and building upon the Harman et al. (2022) systematic review, a comprehensive assessment of 155 studies published up to March of 2023 was conducted to examine the quality of empirical, peer-reviewed PA research. The findings indicate a consistent high level of scientific rigor in PA research, irrespective of when a study was published. The robust quality of PA research addresses several PA criticisms. By addressing concerns regarding the legitimacy of PA research meeting scientific rigor, evaluating the quality of empirical PA methodology will provide further insights regarding said scientific validity, further aiding the decision-making process for family court systems and policy makers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring campus architecture as a factor of expected sense of belonging
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Spitzer, Amanda N., author; Graham, Dan J., advisor; Delgado, Maria, committee member; Gardner, Danielle M., committee member; Malinin, Laura, committee member
    Background: The motivation, retention, and wellbeing of the increasingly diverse college student body is related to their sense of belonging at their university. Surroundings, one of Ahn and Davis' domains of university belongingness, remains underexplored, especially its subcomponent physical buildings. Additionally, prospective students name the physical campus as a major influence on their decision regarding which college to attend, and universities utilize campus photographs strategically for recruitment. Signaling theory provides a possible mechanism by which campus physical environments may influence a university's image and sense of belonging. Still, the Greek Revival and Gothic architectural styles, common on U.S. campuses, have historic ties to discrimination and racism. Purpose: The objective of study 1 is to inspect Ahn and Davis' (2020) surroundings domain and its interaction with the personal space domain, including identity variables such as first-generation status, ethnicity and race. The objective of study 2 is to explore how three architectural styles common on U.S. campuses may affect university image and students' predicted experience, including sense of belonging. Methods: In the quantitative study 1, over 600 participants answered a belongingness survey in response to a short, standardized university description and a photograph randomized to depict a Greek Revival, Gothic, or International Style (control) university building. In the qualitative study 2, fourteen interviews were conducted with first-year college students, in which participants were directed to compare three hypothetical universities, each depicted in three photographs of campus buildings in the same architectural style (Greek Revival, Gothic, or International Style). These interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Results/Findings: Through regression analyses, study 1 indicated no effects of architectural style on belongingness (p=0.29) nor interaction effects with first generation status (p=0.48) and ethnicity (p=0.30). Preliminary descriptive analysis suggested possible moderation by race. In study 2, three themes developed. Participants' impressions of the depicted universities were rooted in the buildings' communication of higher education, meaning university image began with imageability, which in turn, influenced beliefs about students and school climate. Additionally, participants discussed their predicted experience as a function of university image. Lastly, elements of the designed environment indicated imageability and predicted experience, meaning participants used environmental factors as signals. Conclusions: Study 1 addressed a crucial, but largely unexplored, potential inequity in education and experimentally investigated Ahn and Davis' (2020) surroundings domain and its interaction with the personal space domain. Study 2 has practical applications to image-based recruitment as it suggests strategies that may boost predicted experiences and aspects of university image that are communicated through architectural style. Overall, research into the relationship between campus architecture and student outcomes can equip designers and decisionmakers to create higher education environments that empower all current students, visitors, and future students.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Educational attainment polygenic scores, socioeconomic factors, and resting-state functional connectivity in children and adolescents
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Hansen, Melissa, author; Merz, Emily, advisor; Thomas, Michael, committee member; Seger, Carol, committee member; Riggs, Nathan, committee member
    Socioeconomic factors, such as family income and parental education, have been associated with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in networks responsible for executive function in children and adolescents. Yet, children's socioeconomic context interacts with the genetics they inherit from their parents, and few studies of socioeconomic context and rsFC in children have considered genetics. Polygenic scores for educational attainment (PGS-EA) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reflect genetic predisposition to educational attainment. Yet, no studies have examined the associations between PGS-EA and rsFC. The goal of this study was to investigate how socioeconomic factors and PGS-EA jointly predict rsFC in neural networks associated with executive function, including the central executive (CEN), dorsal attention (DAN), salience (SN), and default mode networks (DMN) in children and adolescents. Participants are typically-developing 3- to 21-year-olds (N = 245, 51% female) from the previously-collected Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) study. PGS-EA were computed based on the EA3 GWAS of educational attainment. Resting- state fMRI data were acquired, and system-level rsFC was computed. Findings indicated that family income was inversely associated with rsFC in the SN, while PGS-EA was positively associated with rsFC in the CEN. There were family income-by-age interactions for rsFC in the CEN and DAN, such that age was positively associated with rsFC in the CEN and DAN for children from higher income families and inversely associated with rsFC in the CEN for children from lower income families. These findings help to elucidate the independent genetic and socioeconomic contributions to connectivity in intrinsic functional neural networks underlying executive function.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating gender/sex measures for inclusion of non-binary participants
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Schlechter, Thomas E., author; Conner, Bradley T., advisor; Dockendorff, Kari, committee member; Prince, Mark, committee member; Graham, Dan, committee member
    With the amount of research on Transgender, Non-Binary, and Gender Expansive communities growing, there has been increasing attention paid to the methods used to collect and analyze gender/sex data from participants. Across fields, multiple methods of collecting gender/sex data have been used, but recently a large portion of the literature has highlighted the Two-Step Method (Tate et al., 2013; NASEM, 2022) as a current best practice. However, the Two-Step Method is not without flaws, notably the disagreement on inclusion of categories outside of man, woman, and transgender which may limit the extent to which Non-Binary participants feel included and represented by this approach. This study asked Non-Binary participants to respond to three different survey instruments used for gender/sex data collection and then asked to rate how well they understood the question(s) and if they felt included by the questions. Additionally, participants rated the accuracy of the category each measure assigned them to their own lived experience. Results found that all measures were comprehensible and inclusive, but that measures explicitly including Non-Binary as a category were more accurate to participants. Implications for these results in the inclusion of Non-Binary communities in research are discussed.
  • ItemEmbargo
    Perceptions of supportive organizational practices and well-being among LGBQ+ employees
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2024) Perpich, Rachel A., author; Fisher, Gwenith, advisor; Gardner, Danielle, committee member; Graham, Daniel, committee member; Chen, Adela, committee member
    The increasing number of workers who identify with the LGBTQ+ community illuminates a pressing question regarding how organizations are navigating and implementing DEI initiatives to support minority identities. As organizational efforts to support and retain the rising population of sexual minority workers continue, it is additionally necessary to understand how these employees perceive such practices. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationships between perceptions of supportive organizational practices, perceived organizational support, and worker well-being among LGBQ+ employees. Participants included 352 LGBQ+ individuals recruited via Prolific who completed online surveys at two time points. I hypothesized that LGBQ+ employees who reported their organization having supportive organizational practices would perceive more support from their organization, and thus have more favorable reports of well-being. Additionally, I expected sexual orientation identity centrality to moderate the relationship between perceptions of LGBQ+ supportive practices and general perceptions of organizational support. Results show support for all hypothesized relationships besides those including anxiety symptoms. Specifically, LGBQ+ employees who reported more favorable (i.e., higher) perceptions of LGBQ+ supportive practices also perceived more general support from their organization, which ultimately served as a mechanism for higher reports of job satisfaction and work-life balance and lower reports of depressive symptoms. Additionally, the relationship between perceptions of LGBQ+ supportive organizational practices and perceptions of general organizational support was stronger for employees who identified their sexual orientation as more central to their identity. The present study contributes to a growing body of literature on sexual orientation and work by providing empirical support for the relationship between LGBQ+ employees' perceptions of workplace practices, overall perceptions of support, and important indicators of worker well-being, including job satisfaction, mental health, and work-life balance. Theoretical and practical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Academic resiliency and the post-secondary choices of Mexican American and non-Hispanic white students
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Trujillo, Malinda E., author; Chavez, Ernest, advisor; Deffenbacher, Jerry L., advisor
    This study examined the factors that contribute to the college attendance of dropouts, at-risk students, and control students. Research on dropouts and at risk in-school students typically tends to focus on the factors that inhibit their academic success. Concentrating on risk factors overshadows what might be gained by studying students who are academically successful despite the obstacles and risk factors (Arellano & Padilla, 1996). The academic resiliency literature has shown that a student's academic success depends in part on the "goodness of fit" between contextual events (the family and school environments) and their adaptive resources such as personal attitudes and external support systems (Alva & Padilla, 1995). The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the environmental and personal resources which foster the academic success of Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White high school students and dropouts also foster their decision to attend a postsecondary school. The variables of interest included are parental social support, parental involvement in school activities, peer social support, peer school engagement, and student school engagement. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. Using logistic regression the log-odds of attending a post-secondary school were regressed on peer social support, peer school engagement, parental support, parental involvement, and student school engagement. In this way, the odds of attending post-secondary school as a function of the predictors of interest and relevant control variables were assessed. The results were discussed from an intervention framework.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Emotional experience and romantic relationship status in emerging adult college women and men
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2009) Taylor, Julie, author; Barrett, Karen C., advisor; Canetto, Silvia Sara, advisor
    The primary goal of the current study was to investigate whether romantic relationship status predicts levels of, and changes in, emerging adults' emotional experience over time. Romantic relationship status has been associated with adolescents' daily emotional experience, in that those in romantic relationships reported more extreme positive and negative emotions. Given that emerging adulthood in contemporary industrialized societies is an emotionally vulnerable time and that romantic relationships become more intimate and important across adolescence through emerging adulthood, it stands to reason that emerging adults' daily emotional experience may be influenced by their romantic relationships as well. There is little research about emerging adults' daily emotional experience, and less about individual-level predictors that may predict its variability. Thus, the current study was designed to address this gap in the literature and do so in a way that provides a thorough description of self-reported daily emotional experience over time: by exploring the experience of individual emotions in addition to overall affect scores, investigating differences in group mean levels, and charting growth trajectories for individual differences in between and within person emotional variability across time. Given extant research findings that females and males report emotional experience differently, sex of respondent was considered as well. Twenty-six days of the self-reported emotional experience of 25 female and 24 male predominantly White 18-20 year olds were analyzed using multi-level modeling. Results reveal that being in a romantic relationship, as compared to not, is associated with a different pattern of growth over time in the individual emotions of contentment and joy, and in the emotion composite of positive affect. Additionally, being in a romantic relationship is associated with higher group mean levels of anger. No mean level differences were found between females and males, regardless of romantic relationship status, in self-reported emotional experience. This study uncovers the complex association between emerging adults' romantic relationship status and emotional experience, revealing the importance of individual differences in understanding the trajectories of various negative and positive emotions over time.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Indirect effects of gender on illness behavior through psychosocial factors and perceived stress
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Thomas, Jenifer J., author; Borrayo, Evelinn A., advisor
    Gender differences that have been found in illness behavior, such as reporting symptoms and utilization of health services, can be partially explained by social, psychological, and/or behavioral factors (Denton & Walters, 1999; Denton, Prus, & Walters, 2003). The indirect influence of gender through such factors may further explain differences in illness behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine how the effect of gender on illness behavior may be influenced by social support satisfaction, perceived health status, coping skills, and perceived stress by testing various path models. Secondary analysis of previously collected data from 303 college students were used. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test indicators of the underlying latent variables (i.e. social support satisfaction, coping skills, and perceived stress). Four path models tested the patterns of effects between the latent variables. The main findings of the final model show the relationship between gender and illness behavior was influenced by three paths of indirect effects through multiple factors. The first was the combined influence of gender, greater use of total coping skills, greater social support satisfaction, low perceived stress, and good perceived health status on less reported illness behavior. The second was the combined influence of gender, greater use of total coping skills, greater social support satisfaction, and low perceived stress on less reported illness behavior. The third was the combined influence of gender, high perceived stress, and poor perceived health status on more reported illness behavior. The use of multiple health-related factors may provide a more complete picture of how gender and psychosocial factors influence illness behavior. Future studies should consider testing separate models by gender to better understand how the direction of the variables of interest impact illness behavior differently among men and women.
  • ItemOpen Access
    How the built environment influences utilitarian physical activity: a normative focus theory model
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Szlemko, William J., author; Bell, P. A., advisor
    American rates of obesity and overweight have reached epidemic proportions (American Public Health Organization, 2005). Recently, Utilitarian Physical Activity (UPA) has been proposed as an intervention (Frank, Engelke, & Schmid, 2003). Rather than expecting exercise for the sake of exercise, UPA promotes walking to work or taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Research into how the built environment influences physical activity has, thus far, been based largely on a trial and error method. Additionally, there is currently no theory or proposed mechanism that explains why different features of the built environment influence physical activity, nor why environments that combine known predictors of physical activity do not always have an impact on physical activity. A possible explanation is that in addition to incorporating important design features, the environment also provides normative information. Specifically, the structure of the environment provides information about injunctive norms (what people dis/approve of in situations) and descriptive norms (what people do in specific situations). The purpose of the present project was to determine whether changes in the built environment would lead to changes in perceived norms. Study 1 (n = 871) examined structural equation models from three different university campuses. Results indicated that known features of the built environment contribute substantially to both descriptive and injunctive norms. Both injunctive and descriptive norms were found to form three distinct factors related to UPA on-campus, UPA off-campus, and UPA inside of buildings, and both types of norms mediated the effect of walkability on self-reported UPA. In Study 2, 382 participants evaluated photographs, some of which had been altered in Photoshopâ„¢. Changes in bikes and bike racks were specifically designed to provide information about injunctive (more vs. fewer bike racks) and descriptive (more vs. fewer bikes in racks) norms. Analyses indicated that high levels of injunctive and descriptive norms resulted in higher perceived use of UPA, but had less impact on self-reported use of UPA. These two studies provide evidence that the built environment does help create specific norms. This information is an important step in developing a theoretical approach to design of the built environment for influencing UPA.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of employee gender, occupational prestige, and gender concentration on impression judgments about employees
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2009) Strife, Samantha R., author; Dik, Bryan, advisor
    A vignette strategy was employed to assess how occupational prestige and gender interact to influence overall judgment of target employees. Specifically, ambiguous vignettes were utilized to determine the extent to which attributions associated with occupationism (i.e., prejudicial attitudes towards an individual based on occupational membership) were present for a sample of undergraduate students. Level of occupational prestige (high vs. low), gender concentration of occupation (predominately "female," predominately "male," gender balanced), and gender of employee (female vs. male) were manipulated in the vignettes to ascertain judgments about individuals in varied occupational settings. In addition, stereotypic gender role characteristics were assessed to determine how measurements of masculinity and femininity relate to overall impression of target employee. There were no significant main effects or two way interactions found for occupational prestige, gender of the employee in the vignette, and gender constituency of the occupation. Results indicated that men in a predominately male, high prestige occupation were rated significantly more positively than females in the same predominately male, high prestige occupation. Furthermore, scores of masculinity and femininity were significantly correlated with participants' overall impression of the target employee, such that stereotypic traits associated with masculinity and femininity of the target employee were related to higher ratings of the employee. Implications of the findings are explored using role congruity theory and social role theory.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Client factors predicting outcome in group treatment for driving anger
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Smith, Heather, author; Deffenbacher, Jerry, advisor; Rickard, Kathryn, advisor
    College students who scored in the top 25% on a measure of driving anger participated in an eight-week group therapy program designed to reduce their anger while driving. They were assigned randomly to either Cognitive, Behavioral, or Relaxation Coping Skills Therapy. Results confirmed driving anger was effectively lowered in therapy. Also, while high anger levels have sometimes been shown to interfere with treatment for other kinds of problems (Garfield, 1994; Lambert, Hunt, & Vermeersch, 2004), they did not have the same effect on treatments targeting anger specifically. Higher pretreatment driving anger was associated with a greater decrease in driving anger, angry cognitions while driving, aggressive driving anger expression, general trait anger, and to a lesser extent maladaptive general anger expression, and with an increase in positive coping strategies. Higher pretreatment trait anger was associated with a decrease in all of the above except for measures of driving anger. Measures of general anger expression did not predict therapy outcome as well as driving and general anger, but when associations were found, they were in the same direction. Few main effects were observed for gender or treatment type, and those that were found were not consistent. Several interactions were observed between treatment, gender, and/or pretreatment anger level. The majority of interactions were between pretreatment anger and treatment, such that participants responded better to one treatment condition versus another based on whether they reported relatively higher or lower anger levels at pretreatment. These effects sometimes varied by gender. However, given the number of analyses, relatively few significant findings, and directional inconsistencies of these findings, no suggestions for treatment matching were made. In conclusion, pretreatment driving and general trait anger did not interfere with treatment, but were associated with positive gains in therapy, and there was little consistent evidence that would support matching of client characteristics (e.g., gender, driving or general anger level or type, anger expression style) with treatment conditions, at least for short-term, driving anger focused, cognitive-behavioral interventions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Designing computer-based training for creativity: an examination of learner control, feedback, and creative personal identity
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2009) Smith, April E., author; Kraiger, Kurt, advisor
    Increasing employee creativity is important for organizational innovation and survival in increasingly adaptive markets. Computer-based training is a popular trend in most organizations, yet little research has examined how to design computer-based creativity training. The present study applied cognitive evaluation theory to guide the design of a computer-based creativity training program. It was hypothesized that by offering participants learner control and feedback, their intrinsic motivation and creativity on brainstorming exercises would increase. Two hundred and forty-one college students participated in a two-hour online training program about the creative problem solving process. A 3 X 2 ANOVA design was used with feedback and learner control as factors. Participants either had no learner control over the training program, or received learner control over pacing and type of example viewed. In addition, participants either received no feedback, regular performance feedback, or performance feedback paired with strategy advice. Although hypotheses about learner control and feedback were not supported due to training administration factors, the study did support the importance of perceived self-determination and perceived competence in predicting intrinsic motivation for creative training exercises. In addition, creative personal identity emerged as an important variable to include in future investigations, as it related to perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, and creative performance. Suggestions for adjustment to administration factors, future areas of research, and contributions of the study are also discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Recreational use of prescription stimulants among college students
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Sharp, Jeremy T., author; Rosén, Lee A., advisor
    The current study investigated characteristics of individuals participating in recreational use of prescription stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine salts, in a Western United States university sample. The researcher recruited students from introductory psychology courses to take a Recreational Stimulant Use Survey that included questions on illicit drug use in addition to questions concerning recreational prescription stimulant use. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate for lifetime recreational prescription stimulant use was 13.0%. The author found no significant differences in lifetime prevalence rates comparing non-Hispanic White individuals to minority students. In addition, the author found that the majority of individuals used prescription stimulant medication to increase concentration while studying. Finally, the author identified a significant relationship between motive for use of prescription stimulant medication and method of ingestion, indicating that those using medication for studying may be more likely to swallow the medication rather than ingest it intranasally.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Life in the field: migrant farm workers' perceptions of work related injuries
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Rosales, Monica S., author; Stallones, Lorann, advisor; Borrayo, Evelinn, advisor
    A majority of migrant farm workers in the United States are of Latino descent. Agriculture is a hazardous occupation that puts workers at risk for occupational injuries. While migrant farm workers provide an indispensable service they comprise a disadvantaged group. Migrant farm workers' views of work related injuries have not been fully evaluated. Therefore, this study examined migrant farm workers' views and perceptions of work related injuries. The method of analysis consisted of an ethnographic content analysis of migrant farm workers perceptions and views of occupational injuries. Interviews from twelve Colorado migrant farm workers were analyzed. The analysis led to the identification of five main themes (1) Concerns about safety, (2) Characteristics of injuries, (3) Factors contributing to injuries, (4) Injury prevention strategies, and (5) Injury accountability. Each theme was organized into three sub-themes. The findings from this study suggest that the safety level of the working environment needs to be improved.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The relationship of extraversion to self-efficacy and chronic pain management in women
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Romano, Patricia Ann, author; Bell, Paul A., advisor
    Chronic pain is a silent health epidemic that afflicts millions of Americans each year and the majority of them are women. Researchers continue to try and identify causes of chronic pain and treatment strategies. One treatment strategy has been to evaluate how personality traits impact the experience of chronic pain. The purpose of this project was to assess the relationship of extraversion to self-efficacy, selection of wellness strategies, overall perception of pain disability, and number of pain days reported among a group of individuals with chronic pain. Thirty-five women between 40-65 years of age with chronic pain conditions of arthritis, fibromyalgia, or back problems completed a series of surveys over several waves of data. Results indicated that extraversion was significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy. This is an important link because previous studies have identified self-efficacy as an essential factor for proactive pain management. However, the personality traits of agreeableness and openness were also significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy. Extraversion was not found to be significantly correlated with selection of wellness strategies. This might be due to the possibility that the wellness strategies included in this study require special knowledge or training. Although no significant correlation was found between extraversion and overall perception of pain disability and number of pain days reported, potential relationships trended in the inverse direction. A larger sample would help clarify whether a meaningful relationship exists between those variables. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that self-efficacy would be a moderator and/or mediator variable between extraversion and the other three dependent variables. This was not found. The overall conclusion of this study is that the relationship of personality traits to aspects of chronic pain is complex. However, it is worth continuing to explore these relationships so that professionals can teach chronic pain patients how to use or modify their behavioral tendencies for effective pain management.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An examination among correlations of broad and narrow measures of predictors and criteria: achievement motivation and work behavior in Brazil
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Potemra, Michael James, author; Thornton, George C., III, advisor
    This study examined the proposition (Hogan & Holland, 2003) that predictive validity is maximized when the specificity of predictors and criteria is matched. This proposition was examined using the construct of achievement motivation at three levels of specificity in 74 Brazilian employees. Additionally, the criterion-related validity of achievement motivation was investigated at the same three levels. First, evidence of the Hogan and Holland (2003) proposition could not be obtained due to heterogeneity within groups of correlations. Second, criterion-related validity evidence was demonstrated for the achievement motivation facets of dominance, preference for difficult tasks, engagement, and pride in productivity. Limitations, directions for future research, and practical implications are discussed.