Repository logo

Use of Wildlife for Food and Farming with Elk and Deer in Enclosed System

Permanent URI for this collection

This digital collection includes presentations given at the 8th International Wildlife Ranching Symposium held in 2014 for the symposium theme: Use of Wildlife for Food and Farming with Elk and Deer in Enclosed System.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • ItemOpen Access
    Solving the food insecurity, education and economic paradigm in Africa and the Arctic: a partner in wildlife sustainability
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Drum, Douglas, speaker; Renecker, Lyle A., speaker; Renecker, Lyle, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producer
    Healthy biosystems imply management of animal resources that are in synchrony with food supply. In the long-term, this translates into biological resources that have both economic and ecological sustainability and balance. Both, Nunavut, Canada and Namibia, Africa have an abundance of natural food resources. Food insecurity among aboriginal communities in these same regions is well documented. The World Health Organization defines food security when all people have access to good food to maintain life. In Canada, an Inuit Health Survey determined that about 68-69% of preschool children lived in food insecure homes and the same range of adults was also food insecure in Nunavut during 2007-08. Aboriginal people of Namibia, like other African countries, lack refrigeration to maintain meat food over extensive periods of time in this hot climate and also inadequate in daily protein consumption. Development of value-added, shelf-stable country foods in these for aboriginal peoples in these extreme climatic regions will have several long-term benefits. These include: job creation, resource sustainability, economic development, training and education, empower women through job training and education, better nutrition and food security, and create self-reliance. This paper explores the problems of both communities and how the developments are viewed and impacting the respective regions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The perception of the Millennial generation (Y-generation) consumer of game (wildlife) meat and game meat safety
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Bekker, J. L. (J. Leon), speaker; Renecker, Lyle, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producer
    As in other parts of the world, one of the options for conservationists and game farmers is to channel the meat as a result of harvesting or hunting activities into the local and international food markets. Game meat is however foreign to many, especially urbanised consumers and therefore they tend not to try it as an alternative source of meat. On the other hand, younger consumers such as the millennial generation (Y generation) are seeking for healthier meat products that are free from hormones and other substances and that are more "natural". Game meat mostly provides for these requirements. According to most reports, Generation Y (Gen Y) was born between 1977 and 1994. This timeframe identifies millinial consumers between 19 and 36 years old in 2013. The millinial generation is expected to be as large and influential as the Baby Boomers, which was the generation prior to Gen Y. Information regarding the study was obtained through a desk top study and analysis of questionnaire responses from young South African meat consumers (millinials) with regards to the abovementioned topics. Millinials are the current and future consumer and have a role to play in meat choices. They are however more informed due to higher exposure to media. The research looked for insights in the millinial generations perception about hunting and the use of the meat as a source of meat and concerns regarding meat safety issues such as zoonotic diseases, microbiological contamination and meat inspection practices. The research revealed that consumers do have concerns, especially with regards to animal welfare, hunting practices, exposure to zoonotic diseases, and contamination of the meat by microorganisms and other biological, chemical and physical matter that may cause harm to the consumer. Millinials (Generation Y) are young meat consumers who are especially important for the industry because they offer an opportunity for growth in the industry. If their experience with game meat is positive, these younger consumers will develop a taste for game meat that are likely to last as over years. These younger consumers care more about brand name, quality (including safety) and will typically spend more money to purchase it. It is therefore important to understand their concerns and to use it to the benefit of the wildlife industry.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Game (wildlife) meat safety: understanding the game meat supply chain and the roles of role-players in a multifaceted control environment
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Bekker, J. L. (J. Leon), speaker; Renecker, Lyle, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producer
    As in other parts of the world, the South African game industry is expanding and game meat is finding its way in the local and international food supply chain. In order to do effective game meat control, one must have an understanding of the game meat supply chain and the stakeholders therein. The term 'food supply chain' refers to the total supply process from agricultural production, harvest / slaughter, through processing and handling of a food and its ingredients, storage and distribution up to consumption. In the case of game meat, the supply chain will include the relevant food and meat control authorities, primary producers (farmers), suppliers of feed and veterinary drugs to farmers, hunters, abattoirs, small and large scale processors, wholesale and retail, suppliers of processing materials, import and export agencies, transport and the consumer. From this it is clear that several role-players are involved, which leads to a multifaceted and fragmented food control environment. It was necessary to determine the control points essential for meat safety and the responsibilities of the role-players for the execution of these control points along the game meat supply chain. Information regarding the study was obtained through a desk top study and analysis of questionnaire responses from game farmers, hunters and national, provincial and municipal control authorities. Game meat is often entering the supply chain in an uncontrolled manner while there is a lack of a single formal framework for its operation amongst the stakeholders. To address this issue, the research looked for insight into the game meat supply chain; the differences between the game meat supply chain and the conventional meat supply chain; the respective role-players in the supply chain; and the essential meat safety control points along the supply chain. The crucial meat safety link between the supply chain and the roles of stakeholders in ensuring that safe meat is supplied to the consumer is often vague. The introduction of a mechanism to reduce the indistinctness is essential for this growing industry. The mechanism suggested relates to the establishment of a game meat safety forum whereby all role-players are involved.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cervid field medicine & surgery
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Wagner, Douglas, speaker; Schafer, Shawn, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producer
    Cervid field medicine & surgery: Farmed Cervids present a challenge to manage and treat when disease is present. While these animals are in a farmed situation they are not domesticated and the stress placed upon them to handle and treat them when disease is present, is a factor that must be taken into consideration at all times. Cervids can show signs of Capture Myopathy and be clinically affected in as little as two minutes of a hard chase. The most common diseases that affect farmed Cervids are: Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), Pneumonia, Enteric, Necrobacillosis and Parasitism. The common pathogens causing these diseases will be discussed and treatment options that have been used successfully for these pathogens. Surgery will discuss and focus on issues where surgical intervention is need, the most common reasons for surgical intervention are: Orthopedic (fractured long bones), Antler infection/removal, Soft tissue (traumatic injury repair, neonatal hernia, Ophthalmic (enucleation). Both Medicine and Surgery topics will focusing on practical approaches to identify problems early and treating them while minimizing stress. There are many different Chemical Immobilization protocols that have been used in the Cervid industry, none of these protocols have been standardized and there are no established labeled drugs for Chemical immobilization at this time. Advantages and disadvantages to each protocol will be discussed focusing on which protocols has been most effective dealing with compromised cervids.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The game meat scheme in South Africa
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) van der Merwe, Maretha, speaker; Renecker, Lyle, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producer
    Over 10,000 privately owned fenced wildlife ranches with 16 million head of game have transformed 25 million ha of marginal agricultural land with limited water into thriving operations with far greater economic output than from cattle livestock enterprises (total head only 14 million). A commercial game ranch generates an economic output of about $31/ha compared to $11/ha for livestock farming and creates better paid jobs for a skilled workforce. Meat production and processing on these ranches offers a practical route to improved food security and economic sustainability while maintaining biodiversity. In the past game ranchers had limited options with regards to the utilization of game meat but this scenario changed when a market demand emerged for organic, natural and healthier protein food. A pro-active initiative from Wildlife Ranching South Africa (WRSA), the official mouthpiece of game ranchers in South Africa produced the Game Meat Scheme that was, only after nine years finally successfully negotiated with SA government in a bid to practically guide the legal provision of safe game meat to the local market. The greatest benefit is the fact that the Scheme places the full financial benefits of game meat into the hands of the game rancher. The required registration of the facility on the farm and the rancher as the game meat examiner (meat inspection) will ensure that safe quality meat is produced and will ensure the SA Game Industry to grow from strength to strength and provide the answer to the escalating protein food shortage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Bison conservation ranching on Blue Valley Ranch
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Kossler, John, speaker; Handyside, Perry, speaker; Richert, Josh, speaker; Schafer, Shawn, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producer
    For 20 years, Blue Valley Ranch has been practicing conservation ranching in the Rocky Mountains of north-central Colorado with a focus on wildlife and agricultural production. An integrated resource management approach to land stewardship guides its planning process, and an adaptive management philosophy helps to make management decisions based on science and monitoring feedback. The ranch's vision of conserving wildlife habitat, building ecosystem resiliency, and producing quality livestock and forage crops is exemplified in the inclusion of the American bison (Bison bison) in its operation. As a native grazer, bison are a natural choice for raising a healthy food product on native ranges while practicing good land stewardship. Though hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century, bison have made a comeback in recent decades, due in large part to conservation-minded ranchers and private landowners. A clear understanding of their behavior and grazing ecology takes advantage of the bison's evolutionary history with the grasslands and shrublands of the western United States, and makes them a perfect fit for private lands conservation interested in supporting agriculture and healthy ecosystems.