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Sustainable Use of Wildlife

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This digital collection includes presentations given at the 9th International Wildlife Ranching Symposium held in 2016 for the symposium theme: Sustainable Use of Wildlife.


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  • ItemOpen Access
    Program of the 9th international wildlife ranching symposium: wildlife - the key to prosperity for rural communities
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Abstracts of parallel sessions are included. Symposium includes 4 Plenary sessions, and parallel sessions covering Wildlife Management; Sustainable Use of Wildlife; and IUCN 2nd African Buffalo Symposium.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Trophy hunting & sustainability: temporal dynamics in trophy size & harvesting patterns of wild herbivores
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Muposhi, V. K., author; Gandiwa, E., author; Bartels, P., author; Makuza, S. M., author; Madiri, T. H., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    We explored the trophy quality and trends in harvesting patterns (i.e., 2004-2015) of buffalo (Syncerus caffer), elephant (Loxodonta africana), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (Hippotragus niger) in Matetsi Safari Area, northwest Zimbabwe. We used long-term data on horn and tusk size, age, quota size allocation and offtake levels of selected species. We used linear mixed models to analyse the effect of year, area and age on the trophy size, quota size and offtake levels. One sample t-test was used to compare observed trophy size with Safari Club International (SCI) minimum score. Trophy sizes for buffalo and elephant were below the SCI minimum score. Kudu trophy sizes were within the minimum score threshold whereas sable trophy sizes were above the SCI minimum score between 2004 and 2015.Age at harvest for buffalo, kudu and sable increased whilst that of elephant remained constant between 2004 and 2015. Quota size allocated for buffalo and the corresponding offtake levels declined over time. Offtake levels of elephant and kudu declined whilst the quota size did not change in the same period. The quota size for sable increased whilst the offtake levels fluctuated without changing for the period 2004-2015. The trophy size and harvesting patterns in some species pose a conservation and management dilemma on the sustainability of trophy hunting. We recommend: (1) temporal and spatial rotational resting of hunting areas to create refuge to improve trophy quality and maintenance of genetic diversity, (2) introduction of variable trophy fee pricing system based on trophy size.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Do we really understand accommodation preferences of visitors to the Kruger National Park?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Kruger, Martinette, author; van der Merwe, Peet, author; Slabbert, Elmarie, author; Saayman, Melville, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Accommodation plays such an important role in the tourist's experience, and one would imagine that many studies concerning this topic have been conducted. However, surprisingly very few studies have been carried out on this subject despite the growth in both demand and supply. This gap or lack of research led to the present exploratory study that addressed the question: what are visitors' accommodation preferences when they select accommodation in the Kruger National Park (KNP)? Based on a visitor survey in the Northern region of the Park during December 2015 where295 fully completed questionnaires were administered, respondents were segmented based on their accommodation preferences (self-serviced, serviced and safari). Three distinct clusters were identified, Self-service seekers, Service seekers, and Safari, service seekers. These clusters differ regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and especially regarding the factors they regard as important when selecting accommodation and campsites. This was the first time that the accommodation preferences of visitors to the flagship national park in South Africa were analysed. The results show that while visitors to the KNP appear homogeneous regarding their demographic profile, they differ significantly when it comes to accommodation needs and preferences. The findings from the research are valuable to park management especially when developing and expanding accommodation options in the park as it shows the preferences of each distinct market. This research furthermore makes a contribution to the current literature regarding ecotourism and ecotourists' accommodation preferences.
  • ItemOpen Access
    How sustainable is sustainable wildlife tourism?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Brett, Michael R., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The first formal protected area in Africa was proclaimed in June 1894 in the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR). This protected area was followed four years later by the forerunner of the Kruger National Park. In 1926 the second national park in Africa was proclaimed in the eastern Lowveld of South Africa, and named after Paul Kruger, a former president of the ZAR. In the following year a total of three cars visited the park, and by 1979 visitors had increased to 400,000 per annum. Visitor numbers doubled from 1956 to 1963, between 1963 and 1980, and from 1980 to 1995. In 2014 a total of 1.6 million visitors entered the national park. Of this figure, day visitors comprise77 percent of the total. Visitor facilities in the Kruger National Park currently comprise 4048 beds and 653 campsites in 25 rest camps, 805 kilometers of tarred roads and 1720 kilometers of gravel roads. Since 2002 a total of 334 beds in 17 concession lodges have been added. Visitor numbers are increasing at between 6 and 7 percent per annum, and will double within 11 to 12 years. During peak holiday periods, this equates to 2.5 overnight visitors per km of road, compared to 1.4 overnight visitors per kilometre for Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Reserve. In the southern half of the Kruger Park, where 70 percent of accommodation is concentrated, densities increase to 2.97 overnight visitors per km of road. Given the rapid increase in accommodation in the past years, the question should be asked if this is sustainable. Will the Kruger Park be able to accommodate 3.2 million visitors by 2025 and 6.4million visitors by 2036?Can the national park continue absorbing increasing numbers of visitors and what will the environmental impact be of such an action? Can wildlife tourism be sustainable when human populations and economies continue to grow? If accommodation and roads cannot be extended indefinitely, what, then, are the alternatives? Are there too many visitors, or is the problem one of inadequate management of visitors? And what lessons can be learned from high-density tourism destinations in other parts of the world? Can government be expected to establish new protected areas and visitor facilities in countries where there are so many urgent socio-economic needs? And what role can private protected areas and game ranches play in meeting the growing demand for nature-based tourism? This paper examines these issues and proposes a course of action for the future.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wild and free: what are we conserving and how do we measure it?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Child, Matthew, author; Seiler, Jeanetta, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Saving a species from extinction is the minimum goal for conservationists. Ideally, we should conserve wild, flourishing, adaptive and self-sustaining populations. The IUCN recognises this ideal and states that only wild subpopulations can be considered for Red Listing. But what is wild? The absence of a measurable definition of wildness results in inconsistent Red Listing and thus inaccurate conservation progress reporting. As wildness exists along a spectrum from captive bred to completely free-roaming and many mammal species are subject to intensive breeding and production, which exist on a spectrum from purely commercial ranching to conservation orientated management, a framework that can unambiguously measure the conservation value or wildness of a subpopulation, regardless of the management system or philosophy is needed. Following two expert workshops, we designed a framework, comprising five variables relating to short-term subpopulation viability and four variables influencing long-term population resilience, to measure the species-specific wildness of subpopulations subject to varying management interventions. We used this framework to assess populations under various management systems and extrapolate adjusted Red List statuses for currently threatened species. The framework is a first attempt at providing a consistent and objective method to identify subpopulations that possess conservation value. As such, it will provide a foundation for policy-makers to provide different incentives to landowners focusing on biodiversity conservation versus commercial production. Importantly, developing an overall wildness status for our mammals, to complement their Red List status, will provide a holistic measure of conservation success rather than simply reporting risk of extinction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Management of free-ranging hunted wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Norway
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Storass, Torstein, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    In Europe, wild reindeer was an important source of human food during the last glaciation. Presently the last remnants of the wild European mountain living reindeer survive in southern Norwegian mountains where they move nomadically between summer and winter ranges. The reindeer ranges belong to different counties and municipalities and are owned by private persons and public institutions. The ranges are threatened by human development, and reindeer is a hunted species. The landowner has the hunting rights on own grounds. During a long political process, each reindeer mountain range has been defined, and regional development plans with zones of no development, buffer zones and zones with some development have been approved. A board of landowners and a national board with members from each municipality manage the reindeer according to the plan and National regulations. The national board has the right to oppose all development plans inside the reindeer ranges and will usually be heard by National authorities. The landowner board make harvest plans that must be approved by the national board. In this talk, I will describe the management system that is one example of how a vulnerable hunted species and its habitat crossing private and political borders may be managed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Controversial cuisine
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Cawthorn, Donna, author; Hoffman, Louw, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of responsible hunting on sustainable wildlife ranching
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) van de Giessen, Johann, author; Nel, Lizanne, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Recent studies on the economic contribution of hunting to the GDP of African countries where hunting takes place, put it at over a billion US$ annually, contributing in excess of 50 000 jobs. Looking at South African specifically, visiting trophy hunters and local consumptive hunters alternatively contribute over US$ 200 million and over US$ 600 million to the South African GDP, almost 10% of the total tourism GDP contribution, with processed products contributing an additional US$ 300 million annually. Sustainable and responsible hunting clearly contributes to the Millennium Development Goals of the UN, and has the potential to increase this contribution, to illustrate: the consumptive hunting GDP contribution in South Africa has grown by35% from 2013 to 2015.Hunting incentives extensive wildlife ranching, contributing to its profitability, contributing to ecosystem services. These extensive areas has the potential to contribute 43 job opportunities per1000 Ha, of which 17 will be permanent jobs, while mostly maintaining the ecological integrity of the area. Extensive wildlife ranching may in the long run compete with mining as a viable alternative land use option. However there are risks that may prevent the positive contributions from realizing, like an unsupportive regulatory environment, unsustainable ranching practices, environmental and climatic changes, reputational risks associated with national and international views on current hunting practices. Management of these risks can include the development of industry standards, an effective green certification or labelling scheme and common sense and uniform regulations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Zebra: more than just stripes
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Hoffman, Louw, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in southern Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising -linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Crocodile farming: a fresh approach
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Reader, Robert, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    South Africa Crocodile Farmers are generally in a favourable position regarding the farming of this protected natural resource. It has eliminated the risks of the potentials of extinction of this prehistoric animal and ensured sustainable farming practises through good farming practises. The situation is now that this animal can be traded in theory similar to any stock domestic animals. Traceability is however a future requirement and we are measured by end consumer. The demand for high quality skins is still there and farmers can obtain good margins on these skins. The other grades are where the demand is met with low prices but eventually all skins are consumed in the manufacturing environment but here we are price takers. Can we do better? The following are matters which require further discussion: · At what price is it still economically to produce second grade skins? · Rising energy cost has forced crocodile farmers to look for alternative ways of effectively heating and cooling facilities · Structure design- Indoor/intensive farming or external/semi extensive farming · Integrated systems versus specific concentration · Probiotic · Free food/chicken mortalities, dry mix or combination · Abattoir or not · Export of wet or tanned skins · Quality or quantity · DEAT or Agriculture · Own Breeder Stock or hatchling/yearling purchasing · Agent or own marketing · The role of cooperation · Lessons from the poultry Industry
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sustainable vs unsustainable trends in game ranching in Africa
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Schack, Wilhelm, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Wildlife Ranching was born at the time when passionate individuals thought it was possible to conserve the dwindling wildlife resources of Africa by commercialising the utilization of animals and other natural resources. These pioneering individuals started to perceive realistic outcomes for wildlife management in Africa at a stage when most natural resources were becoming, or were already, under immense pressure from the ever expanding human population but also from the ever increasing sophistication of ruthless exploiters as personalised by poaching syndicates and money grabbers. The initial successes in this regard of pioneers like Ian Player, Norman Atherstone, Zacharias Young, Alec Rough and Jan Oelofse are today legendary, but greatly obscured by the tremendous tide of commercialisation that got a very strong foothold in a venture these days often referred to as an 'industry'. In terms of the long view regarding planetary health, commitment to social responsibility, participation by the less privileged, poverty alleviation and food security, it will be to the advantage of every individual on earth to contemplate the wise and sustainable management and utilization of our natural resources and through that the ultimate wellbeing of humankind. This presentation deals with topics like rhino horn trade, breeding of colour variant antelopes and methods to engage African communities in wildlife ranching to ultimately ensure positive outcomes for human advancement, food security, conservation ethics, and a heritable and healthy earth for posterity from an African perspective.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Does age influence biltong hunters behaviour?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) van der Merwe, Peet, author; Saayman, Melville, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    When looking at market segmentation, age is often used to segment tourism markets. This was also the case with this study, where age was used to perform a market segmentation of South African biltong hunters. The aim was to determine how age affects hunters' behaviour. Data were obtained during the 2015 national hunters' survey. During this time, 492 completed questionnaires were obtained. The results showed that age does affect hunters' behaviour. Firstly, the results revealed that the main motive for hunters to hunt is to escape, to be in nature and to obtain meat; and secondly, age affects hunters' spending and motives to hunt. This research will help product owners to develop different products for hunters based on their age.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Game meat as alternative food source for Africa: a retailer perspective
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Slabbert, E., author; Saayman, M., author; van der Merwe, P., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The issue of food (in) security is critical in many parts of the world including Africa. Citizens have the right to sufficient food, water and social security which means sufficient provision of food on a day-to-day basis. South Africa has the largest privately owned wildlife industry in the world where game farmers utilise more or less 16.8% of South Africa's agricultural land (semi-arid which is best for wildlife farming) for wildlife related activities. This holds enormous potential for Africa in terms of food security. The effective and safe provision of game meat in South Africa and the export thereof can play an important role in contributing to food security. Qualitative research will be done through interviews with major distributors of game meat in South Africa to determine the magnitude of this industry from a supply perspective. Specific attention is given to distributors' perspective of consumer preferences in terms of species, the amount and types of game meat sold and the general consumption patterns of this market. The fact that the wildlife industry lacks data on the consumption of game meat in South Africa hampers the growth of this industry. This information will therefore contribute to growth but also inform stakeholders on the current status of this industry from a supply perspective.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Harvesting and processing of wild game in Namibia
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) van Schalkwyk, Diana, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The wildlife industry in Namibia has shown tremendous growth over the past decades and is currently the only extensive animal production system within the country that is expanding. Several factors are responsible for the dramatic increase in wildlife in range and numbers across Namibia, with the most important being the devolution of rights over wildlife by the state to freehold landowners and communal conservancies. Tourism, live sales and trophy hunting have significantly contributed to the tremendous growth, however they cannot alone sustain further growth. Harvesting wildlife for the purpose of meat production is a viable option, since there is a demand for healthy and high quality meat proteins to feed the ever-increasing world population. It is also predicted that Namibia will experience climate changes in the near future which will further necessitate the optimal management of wildlife herds. The need to hygienically harvest and process game spearheaded the writing of a guideline booklet with the intention of it being used by Namibian game farmers and game harvesting teams. The authors are proud having the opportunity to launch the second edition of this booklet at this symposium.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The "Local" (meat?) hunter? Backbone or bain.... ...of the game wildlife rancher...?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Palos, Stephen, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Making the most of the "bread & milk shopper" requires appreciating their importance, providing for their needs, keeping them "low maintenance", maximising the "basket" and ensuring they select animals which meet management objectives of the ranch. This presentation aims to explore the value of the most basic "customer" of the Wildlife Rancher. Coming from a "Greek South African" up-bringing the presentation will be in "Café Speak" and aims to take a light hearted and amusing view of an incredibly important aspect of the business, encouraging fresh thoughts on the subject and perhaps some specific initiatives by representative organisations to further develop the relationship between the rancher and the meat hunter. Studies in South Africa indicate that the local meat hunter brings in excess of 70% of the revenue to the Wildlife Rancher's gate. But average take per animal is far lower than what international trophy hunters bring. Different too is the expected hunting method or style, and the expectations in relation to services and accommodation. Extreme contrast exists from the most ethical, humble traditionalist (with a tiny "bag" in mind) to big groups of well heeled "corporate hunters" who aim to "whack em & stack em" in between raucous partying, and everything possible in between; each bringing pros & cons!
  • ItemOpen Access
    Fallow deer in southern Africa: a potential meat source or is it just an invasive species?
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Hoffman, Louw, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Where Fallow deer (Dama spp.) were once almost extinct, they have now become one of the most widespread wild ungulate species in the world. In South Africa, this species has also been introduced and is now abundant in the country and could contribute to food security within Africa. However, conservation authorities tend to view this ungulate species as an invasive species whilst game farmers see it as a valuable contributor to farm income: as a hunted trophy or as a source of quality and nutritious meat. Surprisingly, very little is known about its production potential and meat quality in South Africa. Fallow deer have been farmed successfully innumerous countries with the industry in New Zealand being the most prominent. All indication are that this species has adapted well to South African conditions and are highly productive. The meat yield and quality of this species is of the highest standard when adequate harvesting procedures are followed. The fatty acid profile of this species is also beneficial for human consumption. However, antidotal information has it that the meat from stags during the rut has a taint to it: the cause of this has not yet been quantified. Initial results (to be discussed) indicate that the meat quality of this species is of the highest standard typical of wild game animals. However, the distribution of this species needs to be quantified so that strategies can be developed to develop its potential as a sustainable protein source fit for human consumption. The ecological impact of this species also needs to be quantified so that, if required, adequate legislation can be developed to either curb or grow the potential deer farming industry.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Back to basics: "hunt for food": wildlife industry to regulate game meat
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) van der Merwe, M., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The 2014-2016 Montreal - Sustainable Wildlife Management Progress Report (Canada, 25-30 April 2016) listed two of the four integral thematic areas as: wildlife and food security and animal and human health. This sentiment echoed from WRSA 15 years ago when vast proportions of financial investment, resources and expertise were applied to finalizing the legal framework for game meat in South Africa. Following the failure of these efforts, further work was initiated to investigate the alternative of an international guideline for the safe production of game meat in SA. Self-regulation was considered the only option left for the game industry in SA with WRSA acknowledging the future small but tangible role of government in the process. The recent "Wildlife Lab" (April - May 2016) initiative, driven by relevant and involved SA Ministers in the wildlife realm, was tasked to bring innovation but practical executable solutions to the challenges in the game industry. The main objective being a totally deracialised game meat industry with safe, legal production of a quality and nutritious protein food which will help address food security in SA and secondly, to empower local communities, BBE's and SMME's through wealth development thereby increasing the industry's contribution to GDP. This R490 million investment proposal provides for inter alia the current game numbers projected growth to 2021 and 2030 with the build-on concurred initiatives. This model will be explained and rolled out based on the 72% financial contribution from the private sector, 22% new entrepreneur funding and 6%institutional support from the SA government. Furthermore, the model highlighted the need for legal guidelines for game meat production and spurred the long overdue publication of the Game Regulations for public comments. In addition, this model and its foreseen successes for game meat production as proposed by the Wildlife Lab could be carbon copied for and maybe the only solution to re-instating the safe and sustainable utilization of bush meat. Correlations between wildlife hunting and bush meat hunting are: both are part of the customary sustainable use of biodiversity to fulfil nutritional protein needs, both are done for economic gain with meat sold in markets, irrespective of being legal or not. However, the difference lies in that: bush meat hunting is the result of an unmanaged common resource being unsustainably harvested due to weak governance, inadequate policy frameworks, and limited data and knowledge. Wildlife hunting on the other hand takes place generally on privately owned land where the land owner also has ownership of the animals, manages these knowledgeably and harvests the resources sustainably resulting in a huge growth in game numbers. In view of its ecological, social and economic value, wildlife is an important renewable natural resource, with significance for areas such as rural development, land-use planning, food supply, tourism, scientific research and cultural heritage. If sustainably managed, wildlife can provide economic- and food security and contribute considerably to the alleviation of poverty as well as to safeguard human and environmental health.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sustainable agriculture and wildlife resources in Sub Saharan Africa: the relationship to country foods and food security
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Renecker, Lyle A., author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    The World Health Organization defines food security when all people have sustained access to good food to maintain life and can do so in socially and culturally acceptable ways. The food should be good in quantity and quality to maintain a healthy life. However, Sub Saharan Africa is entangled and controlled by a rain-fed agricultural scenario. Food insecurity and poverty cannot be tackled without first addressing the issues of sustainable agriculture and rural development in this region. Conversion of agricultural development agendas and wildlife management strategies into genuine action on the ground requires total political and resource commitment. Socioeconomic and technological characteristics of country food Ag-innovation strategies probably hold part of the answer to mitigation and adaptation to nutritional problems of the region. From Nigeria to southern Africa, many people rely on cattle and wildlife production for their economic livelihoods and nutritional stasis, however overuse of the communal grazing areas and suboptimal grazing practices threaten the long-term viability of the land and contribute to persistent food insecurity. To increase the productivity of livestock and other animals using the land, programs must be designed to help communities improve their livestock practices, address rangeland degradation, add shelf stability to country food processing methods, and improve market access and most importantly feed people. This presentation will discuss how the adaptation ag-innovation and the use of ready to eat processing technology will be applied to improve the sustainability of resources in target central and southern African regions. However, application of technology will go hand-in-hand with personal and cultural empowerment. Lessons learned in similar circumstance of food insecurity in Canada's Arctic will be applied in projects in Sub Saharan Africa.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Game meat production on private land in South Africa: current scale and potential for the future
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Taylor, Andrew, author; Child, Matthew, author; Lindsey, Peter, author; Davies-Mostert, Harriet, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Game meat production is considered one of the four pillars of wildlife ranching in South Africa, with the potential to generate large revenues and contribute positively to food security and job creation. It is very far from meeting its potential, however, with the main reason for this being a lack of an enabling legislation to allow for large scale game meat production. This situation is changing, and as the opportunities for game meat production open up, the wildlife ranching industry is planning the way forward. Based on background information on the sector from available literature, interviews with expert stakeholders, as well as data collected during a survey of 250 wildlife ranchers across South Africa, we examine the current and potential scales of the sector and assess the potential future contribution game meat production could make to food security and job creation. Although there are no accurate estimates of current domestic game meat production for South Africa, anecdotal estimates suggest that 10-20% of meat consumed during the hunting season is game meat, which equates to 45,000-118,000 tonnes. By comparison, our study estimated ~40,000 tonnes of game meat were produced during 2014. With the possibility of a new game meat scheme, domestic production could be increased considerably. Producing sustainable sources of protein in social-ecological systems is also touted as a key intervention to possibly reduce bush meat poaching and biodiversity loss. Generating game meat sustainably may thus be win-win for ecologists and the economy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Catch rain: people working together to restore land and rivers
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2016-09) Huelin, Astrid, author; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, publisher
    Rural communities in Zimbabwe and Zambia are being inspired to work together to restore land and rivers by changing wildlife, livestock and land management practices. There is improved rural community resilience & prosperity in the face of climate change. The Catchment Approach is low input, simple, practical & duplicatable. The results seen are due to community ownership and empowerment to manage their own wildlife, livestock and land resources for the long term. Stories from Zimbabwe: In 2012, The Mwalanga River in Sizinda Community Matabeleland North, started flowing above ground from December to December. For 20 years this river only flowed during the rainy season. Grasslands are being restored, perennial grasses are increasing and wildlife and livestock are being managed with solutions focused thinking. Ngarazi Village of Chief Chisunga area in Mushumbi Pools have set aside a 6000 hectare community conservancy. Recognising the need to improve rainwater infiltration into the soil the community is applying simple regenerative agricultural techniques to manage their area. Muhlanguleni, Chilonga and Gondoweni villages of Chief Sengwe area, Mazvingo Province, Zimbabwe are excited to start changing wildlife, livestock and land management practices to restore their grasslands to health. Stories from Zambia: Communities of the Kafue floodplains are creating solid social management structures to manage their wildlife, livestock, land and rivers.