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2008 Projects

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  • ItemOpen Access
    M-CSF and GM-CSF influence naïve murine alveolar macrophage differentiation and function in vitro
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Higgins, Jonathan R., author; Higgins, David M., author; Lee, Eric J., author; Orme, Ian M., author; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes, author
    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of M-CSF and GM-CSF in their abilities to affect the functional and phenotypical characteristics of AMs. In this study, we harvested naïve uninfected murine alveolar macrophages by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and cultured in the presence of M-CSF, GM-CSF or both. GM-CSF stimulated cell proliferation at a higher rate when measured by relative loss of CFDA-SE dye and had higher phagocytic capacity than M-CSF cultured cells. In contrast, alveolar macrophages cultured in the presence of M-CSF exhibited a dendritic-cell-like morphology and upregulated expression of dendriticcell- associated markers like CCR7, MHC II and DEC205. The dendritic cell character of M-CSF-treated AMs was also manifested in their higher capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). This study demonstrates that M-CSF has a strong ability to differentiate AMs into DC-like cells.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Seventeen magazine covers: messages to adolescent females in the age of celebrity
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Tedesco, Tabitha Rae, author; Ogle, Jennifer P., author; Hyllegard, Karen H., author
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the visual and textual content presented on the covers of Seventeen magazines published between 1997 and 2007. Seventeen is the most widely read magazine among adolescent females today (SRDS, 2002); research suggests that young readers look to this publication for ideas about who to be and how to look (Duffy and Gotcher, 1996). Covers were chosen for analysis because they represent an index to the information included within the magazine and serve as an advertisement for the sale of the publication. Since young people look to Seventeen magazine for insight on how to look and act, it is important to be aware of what they are being told and shown.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Phylogeny of Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) subfamilies Hippocrateoideae and Salacioideae inferred from chloroplast and nuclear genes
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Coughenour, Jennifer Marie, author; Simmons, Mark P., author; Lombardi, Julio A., author; Archer, Robert H., author; Cappa, Jennifer J., author
    The phylogeny of Celastraceae (the spindle-tree family) subfamilies Hippocrateoideae and Salacioideae, which include about 360 species of shrubs, trees, and vines in 25 genera, was inferred using plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. Together, subfamilies Hippocrateoideae and Salacioideae contain all members of the former Hippocrateaceae, which are now recognized as a derived group within Celastraceae sensu stricto. Based on our results, Brassiantha, a monotypic genus endemic to New Guinea, is more closely related to the clade of Dicarpellum (New Caledonia) and Hypsophila (Queensland, Australia) than it is to the former Hippocrateaceae, in contrast to previous studies. This well supported resolution indicates that having a nectary disk positioned outside the stamens has been convergently derived in these two separate lineages. The clade of Kokoona and Lophopetalum was resolved as sister to the clade of Hippocrateoideae, Sarawakodendron, and Salacioideae. This resolution of Kokoona and Lophopetalum supports previous assertions that they are a "transitional link" between Celastraceae sensu stricto and the former Hippocrateaceae. Sarawakodendron, a monotypic genus endemic to Borneo, was resolved as sister to the clade of Salacioideae, which supports earlier assertions that Sarawakodendron is "transitional" between Kokoona, Lophopetalum, and Salacioideae. Based on our inferred phylogeny, arils as mucilaginous pulp are derived within Salacioideae and winged arils may be primitive within the former Hippocrateaceae as a whole. Finally, the former Hippocrateaceae had an Old World, rather than a New World, origin.