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  • ItemEmbargo
    Implementation of energy efficiency practices into U.S. retail sector by facilities managers
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Saadatian Farivar, Armin, author; Olbina, Svetlana, advisor; Ozbek, Mehmet E., committee member; Omur-Ozbek, Pinar, committee member; Besiktepe, Deniz, committee member
    Review of literature indicated that an in-depth analysis of implementation status of energy efficiency practices into U.S. retail sector, their benefits, barriers that prevented their wider implementation, and potential solutions for increasing the sector's energy efficiency was missing. The research purpose was to explore the status of implementing energy efficiency practices into the U.S. food and non-food retail sectors utilizing an in-depth review of the literature and a survey. To accomplish the research purpose, the following four research questions were examined: 1) To what extent do facilities managers in the U.S. integrate sustainable practices to achieve energy-efficient retail facilities? 2) What are the realized and perceived benefits of implementing sustainable practices by facilities managers to achieve energy-efficient retail facilities in the U.S.? 3) What are the realized and perceived barriers to implementing sustainable practices by facilities managers to achieve energy-efficient retail facilities in the U.S.? and 4) What do facilities managers propose as viable solutions that could help wider implementation of energy-efficient practices in the U.S. retail sector? Ninety-six facilities management professionals responded to the survey. The gathered data were analyzed utilizing descriptive statistical methods, and statistical tests such as pooled two sample t-tests and Welch-Satterthwaite t-tests. The research findings indicated that a majority of facilities managers that participated in the survey integrated energy efficiency practices into their retail facilities. Facilities managers perceived the integration of building systems such as energy efficient electrical lighting and energy efficient HVAC systems as effective practices in enhancing the energy efficiency of their facilities. Respondents that integrated energy efficiency practices perceived that reduced energy consumption and lower energy bills were beneficial. Similarly, respondents that never integrated energy efficiency practices perceived that integration of such practices could result in benefits such as reduced energy consumption and lower energy bills. However, respondents perceived no reduction of CO2 emissions. Respondents that integrated energy efficiency practices perceived that financial constraints prevented them from implementing such practices. Respondents that never integrated energy efficiency practices perceived that teamwork inefficiencies, lack of negotiation skills, and lack of support for energy efficiency practices from upper management prevented the use of energy efficiency practices in their facilities. Facilities managers proposed incorporation of commissioning into the building's life cycle, and proactive operation and maintenance of sustainable building systems as viable solutions that could help wider implementation of energy-efficient practices in the retail sector. The study is significant as the U.S. retail sector, among commercial buildings, accounts for the most energy consumption per year. Hence, identifying the most effective energy efficiency practices, their benefits, barriers that prevented wider implementation, and utilizing potential solutions proposed by facilities managers could enhance energy efficiency of this sector.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating high school electricity consumption and expenditure intensity in the Poudre School District of northern Colorado
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2010) Elliott, Jonathan W., author; Guggemos, Angela, advisor; Ore, Janet, committee member; Glick, Scott, committee member
    With the exception of personnel-related expenditures, utilities represent the largest cost in school budgets, but are one area where expenses can be trimmed without compromising educational quality (Consortium for Energy Efficiency, 2005). In the Poudre School District of Northern Colorado, Fort Collins High School (FCHS) and Fossil Ridge High School (FRHS) have similar building attributes (square footage, mechanical systems, and architectural capacities). In contrast to FCHS (built 1995), FRHS (built 2005) has many energy efficiency features and is LEED-Silver and Energy- Star (2009) certified. Yet in recent years, the electricity costs and electric use intensities (EUIs) were comparable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate electricity consumption to understand electric use patterns at these schools. Overall analysis indicated significantly more electricity use for lighting at FCHS (44.04% of total) when compared to FRHS (36.90% to total). Also, HVAC represents 33.16% at FCHS compared to 29.17% at FRHS. However, plug loads account for 24.99% of use at FRHS but only 16.35% at FCHS. Comparing energy performance using whole-building EUI (total annual electric consumption divided by total conditioned floor area) ignores secondary building characteristics that influence consumption. In order to improve the whole building EUI and identify areas of high consumption, individual workspace EUIs were separated for analysis. Variations in workspace specific floor areas and workspace EUIs were seen at both schools. Workspace EUI values ranged from 2.60 kWh/ft2/yr in closet/storage spaces to 40.68 kWh/ft2/yr in the kitchen workspaces. Further, workspace EUIs were partitioned into their HVAC, lighting, plug load, food service and residual components for analysis. Component EUI analysis identified major consumptive differences at the two schools: High for lighting in the trades classrooms and gymnasium at FCHS and high for plug loads in the computer labs at FRHS. Since both high schools have the same educational goals, overly consumptive component EUIs (in one school compared to the other) indicate workspaces where reductions in electric consumption may be possible without detrimental effects on education quality. Educational workspace distribution and the amount of electricity-consuming equipment vary between the schools and hence traditional whole-building EUI (total consumption/total conditioned floor space) must be interpreted with caution. Major differences in the component EUIs observed between the two schools indicated that the high-wattage lighting in the trades classroom and gymnasium at FCHS and the computer density at FRHS should be investigated for possible renovations to reduce electric use at these schools.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of weather-related disasters on U.S. highway, street and bridge construction sector labor markets
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Shrestha, Sudip, author; Arneson, Erin, advisor; Harper, Christofer, committee member; Alves Pena, Anita, committee member
    The U.S. has been experiencing the increasing effects of disasters, both in frequency and economic losses. Disaster damages to U.S. transportation infrastructure systems cause hundreds of millions in direct and indirect economic losses annually. Hundreds of miles of highways, streets and bridges are damaged every year due to severe storm events and are particularly vulnerable to flood damage. The urgency to repair and reconstruct these road networks after disasters creates a sudden demand shock for construction industry services and labor. The term demand shock is used throughout this thesis to indicate changes in the demand for labor due to exogenous factors like weather-related disasters. The researcher hypothesizes that the rapid increase in construction labor demand after disasters influences labor wages within the highway, street, and bridge construction sector (NAICS 237310) labor market. Specifically, this study proposes to answer the following research questions: RQ1: How does post-disaster labor demand shock affect the highway, street, and bridge sector? RQ2: How do State-level socioeconomic conditions influence post-disaster labor demand shock? RQ3: How can the highway, street and bridge sector anticipate post-disaster labor demand shock? This research provides the quantitative assessments of how post-disaster demand for construction services can influence labor market wages in the highway, street and bridge construction sector. Results indicate labor costs spike after disasters, information that could help local and state governments to plan for post-disaster reconstruction project costs. This research can also help contractors bidding on roads and bridge reconstruction projects to include more accurate costs for labor wages. The study of labor demand helps in assessing the current status of labor market and its capacity in supporting the post-disaster reconstruction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Use of reality capture technologies in the US construction industry
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Karbasiahvazi, Ali, author; Olbina, Svetlana, advisor; Elliott, Jonathan W., advisor; Malinin, Laura, committee member
    The construction industry has traditionally been slow to adopt new technologies. Reality capture technologies (RCT), including laser scanning and photogrammetry, have been around for many years; however, the benefits, obstacles, and application areas of these technologies in the construction industry have not been investigated nor quantified in detail. Clarifying the benefits and obstacles to implementing RCT by different construction project stakeholders could encourage decision-makers to invest in these technologies for their projects. This study aimed to explore the use of RCT within the commercial building sector of the US construction industry. A survey was used to investigate the extent of RCT use, including different commercial project types and throughout project lifecycles, and the benefits and obstacles of using RCT. The survey was distributed to owners/developers, designers, contractors, and construction managers/owner representatives across the US. Descriptive statistics indicated that most survey participants were familiar with RCT. Using ANOVA and t-tests, statistical comparisons revealed no significant differences by project stakeholders regarding the proposed benefits or obstacles of RCT use in commercial building projects. However, results showed a statistically significant difference for RCT benefits by project type, suggesting that participants perceived RCT use was more beneficial for additions, renovations, or maintenance projects than new construction projects. Additionally, statistical analysis revealed that participants perceived the use of RCT was less beneficial during the operation and maintenance (O&M) phase compared to other phases of project lifecycle. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing perspectives of US construction project stakeholders regarding RCT use. RCT providers and manufacturers can use the research findings to better fit their products to the needs of construction project stakeholders. The findings can also help AEC firms in the commercial building sector to implement RCT on their projects.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Integrating BIM as a teaching tool in existing construction management curricula: a case study
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Rush, Jonathan M. Mike, author; Elliott, Jonathan, advisor; Glick, Scott, committee member; McLean, David, committee member
    Building design and construction delivery methods are becoming more complex while construction durations are simultaneously being reduced. Today the construction industry is leveraging technologies including Building Information Modeling (BIM) to improve project delivery. BIM applications are used in the construction industry as the platform on which design build and integrated project delivery (IPD) is practiced to complete construction task such as: lift and shop drawings, cost estimating and cost management, generation and analysis of project schedules, logistics analysis, and project marketing. BIM technologies are also used to facilitate more clear communication between all members of a building project development team. Literature review and professional experience reveals that the construction industry needs graduates with some aptitude for BIM. Further, an experiential understanding of BIM applications is imperative for construction management graduates to navigate the growing complexities of project delivery to meet industry demand. This study investigated the integration of BIM within an existing graduate-level construction management course at Colorado State University (CSU). An exploratory sequential case study approach was implemented to conduct a cross-sectional study of quantitative and qualitative data. The investigation is grounded in the researcher's ongoing professional work in facilities management at CSU, and a review of literature to establish the need for BIM exposure, experience and aptitude in the construction industry. This study initially explored BIM integration and teaching methodologies in the architecture and engineering disciplines. The researcher applied the expanding use of BIM in architectural engineering education to inform technology integration within construction management curricula. A survey was distributed to gather data on the student experience with BIM as well as their pre- and post-class perceptions of the learning opportunities and outcomes of BIM integration in a graduate construction management course. After compiling the data from quantitative Likert scale items, the researcher conducted paired samples t-tests: comparing the same people on one variable, at the pre-test and post-test intervention for students taking the CON 571 class. The objective of running the paired t-tests was to determine if student perceptions of their experience with BIM and associated development planning assignments were significantly different before and after taking CON 571. A significant difference in the mean at pre-test and post-test was observed and results suggest that the students were learning the technology and the course materials at the same time. The study leveraged the researcher's work as University Architect and Manager of Capital Design and Construction at Colorado State University coupled with a parallel appointment to teach the Facility Planning and Management (CON 571) course. The researcher has taught CON 571, each fall, for eleven years, and this case study focuses on three semesters where BIM was fully integrated into the existing curricula. The course used actual projects in various stages of development on Colorado State University's campus and sequentially taught the project development process. The content and teaching used BIM to align assignments directly with the development process, starting with master planning, building, programming, project marketing, conceptual building design, building code analysis, cost estimating, scheduling with logistics planning and concluded with construction documentation. Through the integration of three-dimensional technologies, the building information models evolve through the duration of the course and result in a detailed facility that was originally identified on the student's conceptual master plan. An exploratory case study approach was implemented to conduct a cross-sectional study of quantitative and qualitative data through literature review research, professional experience and interactions, surveys and analysis. The investigation is grounded in the researcher's ongoing professional work, and a review of literature to establish the need for BIM exposure, experience and aptitude in the construction industry. The study provides evidence that BIM can be successfully integrated into existing construction management curricula to promote the critical thinking, planning and problem solving required of successful construction management graduates and practitioners. BIM was successfully used as a tool to teach the existing curriculum in CON 571 which focuses on the project development process at Colorado State University. The results revealed that the students learned the existing course material, emerging delivery methods, and the BIM technologies simultaneously. This study suggests that BIM can be integrated into existing curriculum and that separate classes focusing on the technology itself may not be needed. The study also illustrates teaching methodologies developed in the subject course that can be utilized in other courses to support the integration of BIM across existing AEC curricula. Identified in the literature review and supported by the researchers work experience, this research builds on current educational and professional practices using BIM technologies in design, construction and development. The results are helpful for professionals involved with both the teaching and practice of integrated project delivery, specifically, design-build. That said, continuing efforts to integrate BIM into Construction Management education is needed. Further research should focus on teaching methodologies, more mobile and site-based technologies, and the adaptation of this parametric, data driven tool to encourage discovery and innovation in both project documentation and delivery. BIM is rapidly changing the way buildings are procured, constructed and delivered. Preparing construction management students to leverage BIM applications, while still obtaining a solid foundational CM knowledge base, is paramount for preparing students to enter a quickly advancing Architectural Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Risk profiles in integrated project delivery agreements - a comparative study
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Sajip, Mihika A., author; Mehany, Mohammed S. Hashem M., advisor; Harper, Christofer M., advisor; Switzer, Ralph, Jr., committee member
    Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a collaborative and communicative Project Delivery Method (PDM). It promotes lean principles such as team integration, Last Planner System, Big Room concept, Pull Planning, etc. Another important feature that sets it apart from other Project Delivery Methods is Multi-Party Agreements. Unlike other agreements that only two parties share, multi-party agreements aim to have as many relevant parties as its signing members. Sutter Health's IFOA, ConsensusDocs 300, and AIA agreements for IPD are the most widely used agreements on IPD Projects. There are an enormous number of unknowns to these agreements, as they haven't been as tried and tested in the courts of law as much as other agreements. There is a negligible amount of research done on them. No research exists on the comparison between the content of these agreements. To address this issue and to study and compare their clauses, a combination study involving collecting empirical and theoretical data was initiated. Data was collected through pilot interviews, an electronic survey and a detailed comparative content analysis. The objectives of this study are to provide information on a) Clauses in the agreements that require modification; b) Clauses in the agreements that have come up during disputes c) Similarities and differences in between these clauses; d) Effects of multi-party agreements on contractual privity during disputes; e) Mitigation strategies used to avoid and wade through risks. This research can also be utilized by organizations as an aid while selecting a suitable agreement for their IPD Project.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of precast and cast-in-place buildings in United States
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Vasishta, Tanmay, author; Mehany, Mohammed S. Hashem M., advisor; Killingsworth, John, committee member; Atadero, Rebecca, committee member
    Precast construction is one of the growing construction methods for buildings across United States. Many tools have been used to assess environmental and economic impacts of the buildings. LCA and LCCA are one of the most widely used tools to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the buildings for their complete life cycle. The research aims to understand the life cycle environment impacts and costs over the complete life cycle for precast and cast-in-place building system. Cradle-to-grave approach was used to develop a framework for assessing the these impacts for precast and cast-in-place building systems constructed in United States through Open LCA software and NIST handbook for LCCA. The environmental impacts and costs associated with the four phases (raw material extraction and manufacturing, installation/construction, operation and demolition) of a precast building in United States were calculated and compared to cast-in-place building system. The research findings implicated that precast using sandwich panel building system had 21% lower life cycle costs (LCC) compared to cast-in-place building system. The construction phase and operation phase also had 38 % and 24% lower LCC compared to cast-in-place building systems. Additionally, lower life cycle environmental impacts towards nine environmental impact indicators were recorded for precast building systems. This study concluded that precast methodology has lower life cycle environmental and economic impacts than cast-in-place and is more sustainable construction method. The developed framework for LCA and LCCA could be applied to all concrete construction projects across the world and could be used as platform for conducting future LCA and LCCA studies as well. The research can also be used by practitioners to understand the phase-wise and total life cycle environmental and economic impacts of precast and further investigate to reduce these impacts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Modeling post-disaster permanent housing reconstruction outcomes in the U.S. using resourcing factors
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Pradhan, Srijesh, author; Arneson, Erin, advisor; Vasquez, Rodolfo Valdes, advisor; Mahmoud, Hussam N., committee member
    The residential housing stock in the U.S. is vulnerable to the rising frequency of weather-related hazards, exemplified by economic losses and social disruptions caused by recent billion-dollar events. Reconstruction of damaged residential housing is essential for the swift recovery and long-term resilience of communities. However, recovery is often delayed, and the outcomes are not uniform across disaster-affected regions of the U.S. which may be attributable to unequal access to reconstruction resources. Permanent housing reconstruction in the U.S. adopts a market-driven resourcing approach which is dependent on the availability of construction and capital resources. The availability of construction resources is determined by the capacity of the regional construction market to supply labor and material resources while the availability of capital resources is determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of households and the availability of federal grants for home repairs. Under a market-driven model, the socioeconomic characteristics of households, construction industry, and the federal government constitute three core resourcing forces, composed of various resourcing factors, that influence the availability and accessibility of capital and construction resources. Although the availability of resources is crucial for reconstruction, very few studies have quantitatively examined the influence of resourcing factors on residential reconstruction outcomes at a regional scale. As geographic regions of the U.S. vary in their socioeconomic conditions and construction capacity to supply resources, the influence of resourcing factors on reconstruction outcomes may also show regional variation. However, very few studies have explored the spatially varying influence of resourcing factors on reconstruction outcomes across disaster-affected regions. Using both aspatial and spatial statistical approaches, this study performs a quantitative analysis of post-disaster permanent housing reconstruction outcomes from the lens of resource availability and accessibility. Using Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models, this study seeks to: (1) quantify the global relationships between socioeconomic, construction industry, and federal government resourcing factors and post-disaster permanent housing reconstruction outcomes at a regional scale in the U.S.; and (2) explore the spatially varying local relationships between resourcing factors and reconstruction outcomes. Over 600 counties hit by federally declared weather-related hazards, with substantial residential losses, between 2007-2015 are analyzed to establish the global relationships between resourcing factors and reconstruction outcomes. The Northeast Census Region of the U.S., hit by catastrophic weather-related hazards between 2011-2012 with unprecedented residential losses, is used as a case study region to explore the spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between resourcing factors and reconstruction outcomes. Findings from the OLS model reveal that availability of construction and capital resources, measured through socioeconomic and construction industry resourcing factors, significantly influence reconstruction outcomes in disaster-hit counties across the U.S. Findings from the case study of the Northeast Census Region, analyzed through the GWR model, reveal that the relationships between resourcing factors and reconstruction outcomes showed regional variation as a result of region-specific resourcing context. The findings of this study will help emergency planners, policymakers, contractors, homeowners, and reconstruction stakeholders in resource planning, policymaking, and decision-making through the identification of critical resourcing bottlenecks and their spatially varying influence across geographical boundaries.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Positioning of anchors for personal fall arrest systems for sloped roofs
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2019) Heidari, Azin, author; Olbina, Svetlana, advisor; Glick, Scott, advisor; Atadero, Rebecca A., committee member
    Construction worker falls account for about one-third of all construction fatalities increasing 53% from 2011 to 2015 with most fatalities in the roofing trade. A personal fall arrest system (PFAS) is an effective means of fall protection and required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). However, PFAS anchor point placement is an issue evidenced by the number of fatalities caused by incorrect anchor positioning (Hinze and Olbina, 2008). This research looks at a process to create a tool to optimize PFAS anchor points by: 1) Converting OSHA and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) regulations and standards for anchor point positions into computer-readable format; and 2) Developing a tool for optimization of locations of anchor points. A qualified field user performs the tool data input. Data include PFAS features (e.g. lanyard length) and project-related values (e.g. roof height). The tool then looks for the potential anchor locations that satisfy the fall clearance and swing hazard requirements. K-Nearest Neighbor Search (KNNS) algorithm was used as the optimization model for the tool. The tool was developed in Python programming language and was compiled into a standalone computer application with a user-friendly interface. The output of the tool includes optimized anchor points displayed both graphically and numerically. The tool results were validated using the K-fold Cross-Validation method and proved the tool output results to be adequately accurate. The contribution of this research is the development of an automated field-level process for steep sloped roofing companies that would help improve their safety practices.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparative assessment of transportation sustainability rating systems
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Oluwalaiye, Oluwatobi Temitope, author; Ozbel, Mehmet E., advisor; Olbina, Svetlana, committee member; Atadero, Rebecca A., committee member
    The construction industry contributes a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions to the environment. This highlights the need for this industry to implement sustainable practices to mitigate its negative effects. In the transportation sector of the construction industry, several transportation sustainability rating systems (TSRS) have been developed to measure and promote sustainability. However, studies show that these TSRS have not been developed within a consistent "sustainability scope". This raises the question of the consistency of these TSRS in measuring sustainability of transportation projects. This study assessed three prominent TSRS to determine how each measure sustainability with respect to the triple bottom line. The TSRS that are in the scope of this study are: ENVISION – a third-party rating system, INVEST – a self-assessed rating system and, GreenLITES – an in-house developed self-assessed rating system. The results show that these three rating systems assess and reward sustainability practices differently. Additionally, results suggest that it may be easier for a project to get awarded in GreenLITES compared to the other two TSRS. Notwithstanding all the above, a consistency was noted in all three rating systems in the Quality of Life/Social performance of projects. This study helps inform stakeholders in the transportation industry on how transportation projects perform when run through each of these rating systems. This will help stakeholders make informed decisions with respect to choosing one (or more) TSRS to assess their projects with and evaluating the results obtained from such TSRS.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effective strategies to reduce the impacts of skilled worker shortages in the construction industry
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Atluri, Eeswar, author; Strong, Kelly, advisor; Senior, Bolivar, committee member; Clemons, Stephanie, committee member
    One of the most common problems over recent years in the construction industry is the supply of skilled workers to the industry. Across the United States, over the years this has been identified repeatedly. During the great recession, many of the unemployed workers shifted into the more stable industries. In the recent years, baby boomer generation (born 1946 to 1965) retirement and a decrease in unemployment rates indicate a skilled workforce shortage in the United States. Skilled workforce shortages have some impacts on the industry. These impacts could be reduced by training the new low skilled workers coming into the industry. However, there has been limited research to identify the strategies that can be implemented during the design and planning stage. This thesis reports the results of interviews with eight industry professionals and explored their view on each impact identified during the literature review. The researchers collected participant responses through convenience sample interview questionnaire to identify the strategies used and suggested by the participants. Through this qualitative study, it was expected that a list of suggested and current strategies towards the impacts would emerge. This data was then used to create a structured survey to find the effectiveness of the strategies identified through the interviews. The researchers collected participant responses with structured electronic survey through random sampling of the Design Build Institute of America. The results indicated the majority of the participants thought prefabrication could be the most efficient way to reduce the negative impacts on the construction industry. Both qualitative and quantitative results emphasized the shift towards prefabrication can be more efficient than any other strategies identified.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Life-cycle cost analysis of a bridge in remote mountainous terrain
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Alnewar, Saurabh, author; Strong, Kelly C., advisor; Senior, Bolivar, committee member; Atadero, Rebecca, committee member
    There are various approaches documented and researched to calculate life cycle cost, yet many researchers and applications fail to incorporate user costs to optimize total life cycle costs. To perform a holistic bridge life cycle cost analysis, all the cost components are to be considered. The bridge life cycle cost is divided into: agency cost, user cots and environmental costs. The agency cost comprises of acquisition cost, construction cost, maintenance and repair cost, deck replacement cost and debris removal cost. The user cost constitutes vehicle operation cost (VOC), travel delay costs and crash costs. The environmental costs are out of the scope of the study hence are not calculated. In this study, the impact of user cost on total life cycle cost are calculated for a hypothetical bridge failure in remote mountainous terrain based on two alternative detour routes. The study focuses on using a deterministic approach to calculate total bridge life cycle cost with emphasis on user cost. Detailed mathematical calculations are performed using readily available data on bridge characteristic, agency and user cost components. A sensitivity analysis is performed on two detour route alternatives. The selection of the two detour routes is done based on the availability of possible options around the selected bridge. The results from the user cost calculation for the two detour routes and their impact on total life cycle cost are presented in this study along with the total bridge life cycle cost.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Finding a solution for the tradeoff between time, cost and sustainability/LEED credits for new construction
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Kumar, Shantanu, author; Mehany, Mohammed S. Hashem M., advisor; Guggemos, Angela Acree, committee member; Anderson, Charles W., committee member
    Project complexity generated tradeoffs in construction, which evolved over decades. This research focuses on the tradeoff between time-cost and sustainability represented in the LEED credits (Materials and Resources in particular). The research was broken down into preliminary and validation studies, wherein the preliminary study used an exhaustive search to find the optimized solution. In validation case study, the size of dataset increased exponentially, and it became computationally incompatible to find the optimized solution. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was hence used to find the optimized solution based on priority factors entered by the user. Usage of GA was validated using the preliminary study data and then applied to the validation study data. A tradeoff could be seen between the priority factors and the optimized solution. It was found that the optimization model was successful in minimizing the time and cost, concurrently maximizing the credits for a validation case study conducted for a real-life project.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Implementing digital visualization technology within AEC education: a pedagogical intervention
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Shull, Kacie, author; Killingsworth, John, advisor; Elliott, Jonathan W., committee member; Olbina, Svetlana, committee member; Malinin, Laura, committee member
    As the years progressed, the discipline of architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) continues to evolve in education and the practice due to advances in digital visualization technology—specifically in the virtual presentations. Research has shown that digital visualization influences end-users by facilitating productive and efficient communication between stakeholders in the built environment. Digital visualizations tools give the AEC professionals and the building end-users the ability to access information quickly and easily while promoting visualization of information in a three-dimensional configuration rather than multiple two-dimensional drawings. Not only has research shown that digital visualization has influenced the professional community, but it has also changed the context in how the higher education is taught in the AEC fields of study. In today's professional society, a common fundamental skill expected in the workforce is the knowledge of the latest software technology used in the industry: such as Autodesk Revit, AutoCAD, and SketchUp. In addition, students are expected to communicate and receive information from the latest technology and understand the graphic communications in the workforce by using their spatial cognition. Studies have shown that when individuals use three-dimensional software programs, a person's spatial cognition scientifically improves and they can mentally visualize two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and four-dimensional drawings. By using previous studies that focus on the importance of educating students by engaging them to virtual presentations and digital formatting software, this research was tested first-year AEC students during the fall 2017 on how developed their spatial cognition is with an eight-question quiz that challenges their spatial cognition abilities. Before the pedagogical intervention of their first-year drafting course, which incorporates with the latest industry technology, a quiz was sent to all participants of this research during the beginning of the fall 2017 semester. After the pedagogical intervention, the same eight-question quiz sent out to the same participants at the end of the fall 2017 semester to see if their spatial cognition improved from their first-year drafting course. By comparing the pre-quiz scores to the post-quiz score, this research was able to determine if the curriculum being taught is making an impact on the student and are helping them prepare for a successful career in the AEC field. The framework for this research focused on the academia digital visualization technology influenced by the pedagogical approaches in higher education and the student's learning in the AEC higher education. This study focused on how digital visualization tools influence a student's spatial cognition within an entry-level drafting course. This was achieved with an eight-question quiz that was given to the students twice; once in the beginning of the fall 2017 semester and again at the end of the fall 2017 semester.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparing claims and disputes performance between traditional project delivery method and alternate project delivery methods
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Bashettiyavar, Gautham, author; Mehany, Mohammed S. Hashem M., advisor; Senior, Bolivar, advisor; Switzer, Ralph V., committee member
    Claims and disputes are common in construction projects and the costs associated with these adversarial relationships can reach up to $4-12 billion per year. While previous studies have indicated that project delivery methods (PDMs) might impact the frequency and severity of claims and disputes on construction projects, none provided any empirical evidence to support this perception, especially as related to the claim types in different project delivery methods. To address this issue and explore the different variables that might affect claims and disputes among many other project performances metrics, this empirical study was initiated. Data was collected by distributing a questionnaire to Departments of Transportation (DOTs) across the transportation sector. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that while PDMs, procurement, and contractual methods have no significant impact on the claims and disputes performance, PDMs can impact other factors (e.g. contractor's performance and trust). These significant findings provide opportunities for further research in other areas such as trust and partnering, which were proven to strategically act as indirect mitigation practices to claims and disputes occurrence in construction projects. The research can also be used by practitioners to further understand the real reasons behind claims and disputes, avoid their triggers, and build a good model of trust for claims and disputes avoidance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A case study of barriers inhibiting the growth of information and communication technology (ICT) in a construction firm
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2017) Andipakula, Thejasvi, author; Senior, Bolivar A., advisor; Nobe, Mary, committee member; Skiba, Hilla, committee member
    The purpose of this research is to study barriers that inhibit the growth of ICT in a construction firm operating in the state of Nevada. This paper focusses on three research objectives. The first research objective is to identify commonly used Information and communication technology tools in the selected firm. The second objective is to highlight significant barriers that hinder the growth of ICT implementation in the selected construction firm. The third research objective is to analyze strategies used by professionals of the selected construction firm for mitigating barriers that are encountered while attempting to implement ICT. Different factors were highlighted which inhibit the growth of ICT. Literature review highlighted the most important ones as financial constraints, time constraints, lack of support from top management, lack of training, the reluctance of employees to learn new technology and lack of technical support. To mitigate the barriers to ICT adoption, literature has stated different strategies. These include support and encouragement from top management, training employees for ICT tools, motivating employees for using ICT, empowering a champion to overcome resistance from employees, learning by observation and giving employees sufficient time to learn. A case study approach was used, and one firm was the center of research, thereby data collection and analysis was limited to this particular firm. Nine interviews were conducted with employees belonging to different sectors in which firm operates. A thematic analysis of interview data was conducted using NVivo. Roger's model of Innovation Diffusion (1983) was employed as a tool for considering ICT adoption attitudes in terms of the interviewees' personal preferences. The analysis showed that all interviewees had a clear understanding of importance and scope of ICT in the selected firm. However, their understanding was congruent with their stage of Roger's model (1983). The selected firm had the financial strength to adopt ICT, and top management supported new ideas and ICT adoption. Ample training was given to employees so that they can learn new technology with ease. A persistent barrier was the time available to implement ICT, as interviewees reported that they needed more time to explore the use of new technologies. The selected firm used three strategies to facilitate ICT diffusion, i.e., training employees, motivating them and creating a culture of support. It was suggested that the selected firm should use 'learning by observation'; showing employees how ICT can help with their day-to-day work will motivate them and develop their interest in using it. Furthermore, giving employees time to explore the use of new technologies can also facilitate ICT implementation in the selected firm. The implications of findings for the selected firm and other firms in the construction sector are discussed in the thesis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Analysis of public university facilities cost
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2017) Suhail, Gazala, author; Strong, Kelly, advisor; Glick, Scott, advisor; Grigg, Neil, committee member
    Comparing construction costs between public and private sector projects has been a topic of interest, specifically, which one is more cost efficient. Many researches have compared the two sectors, however, there is limited research with emphasis on university construction. This study focuses on the cost factors influencing project cost performed at public universities and comparing it with similar projects in the private sector. It also presents an analysis of the assorted reasons responsible for the difference or similarities in the two sectors. This study utilizes an exploratory, comparative case study methodology performed on a small sample number of public university projects and two sources of private sector cost data. A thorough analysis with a large dataset is required to conclude a generalizable outcome. The data of four categories of projects collected from five public universities is compared with the cost range obtained from two private entities based on cost per square foot. The results show that most of the public projects have comparable costs to that of their private sector counterparts. The cost data from the university projects is also compared with each other to explore if there are any possible relationships between the types of delivery methods and sustainability certifications based on two project performance indexes; cost and duration. Based on the limited scope of this research it can be surmised that Design-Build proves superior performance when compared to Design-Bid-Build and CM/GC. Based on the limited data, no significant conclusion could be made on the effect of LEED certifications levels on either cost or project duration. This research does provide a starting point for future research into the topic of public sector project costs when compared to private sector counterparts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Use of BIM-based energy simulations to analyze the impact of occupant behavior on energy performance of commercial buildings
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2017) Yogi, Sanjeev, author; Olbina, Svetlana, advisor; Strong, Kelly, committee member; Malinin, Laura, committee member
    The impact of occupant behavior on the energy performance of a building has been studied for a very long time. However, despite many studies, occupant behavior is difficult to understand due to its complex and unpredictable nature. Usually, occupant behavior is oversimplified and poorly represented; hence, one fails to make the correct assessment of the impact of occupant behavior on building energy performance. To make a precise prediction of the impact of occupant behavior on building energy consumption, it is imperative to develop better techniques in terms of analyzing occupant behavior and methods of research. Occupant behavior is stochastic in nature and varies widely depending on the characteristics of the building. Some occupants are proactive in saving energy while others are wasteful. Based on the workstyles of the occupants, occupant workstyles can be divided into three categories: austerity, standard and wasteful. As building characteristics influence both occupant behavior and energy performance of buildings, it is important to incorporate building characteristics into any building energy analysis to make the correct assessment of the impact of occupant behavior on the energy performance of the building. This can be achieved by using the building information modeling (BIM) based energy simulation for different categories of occupant behavior. This research used BIM to study and analyze the effect of different categories of occupant behavior on the energy performance of the building. To achieve this goal, most influential building characteristics and parameters of occupant behavior were identified; case study of occupant behavior on commercial building at Colorado. State University (CSU) was performed and guidelines to minimize the impact of wasteful workstyle on energy performance of the commercial buildings were developed. The identified most influential building characteristics of commercial buildings in this research were used to create the building information models in Revit which were then exported to DesignBuilder for simulations of annual building energy consumption. The identified parameters of occupant behavior for different types of workstyles were inputted in DesignBuilder before performing energy simulations. The simulation procedure was also illustrated in one of the commercial building at Colorado State University. The analysis of the simulation results showed that energy performance of the building is affected by the occupant behavior. The change of occupant workstyle from wasteful to austerity decreased the annual energy consumption between 41% and 58% while change of occupant workstyle from wasteful to standard decreased the annual energy consumption between 9% and 19%. Similarly, the decrease of annual energy consumption was between 33% and 45% due to change of workstyle from standard to austerity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cost of using building information modeling (BIM) in retrofit projects
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2017) Odhyan, Gaurav Singh, author; Olbina, Svetlana, advisor; Nobe, Mary, committee member; Skiba, Hilla, committee member
    Building information modeling (BIM) is a process that involves the creation and use of an n-dimensional model that can be used in the design, construction, and operation of a building. BIM is changing the process by which buildings are designed, constructed, and used by future generations. However, many owners require seeing quantitative measurements when discussing the benefits of BIM, and these benefits are difficult to quantify into a cost. Previous research has shown the benefits of BIM in new construction, but there is no sufficient research on the benefits of BIM in retrofit projects. BIM can assist in understanding existing buildings and executing the retrofit work. The research goal is to show owners and contractors the cost of using BIM in retrofit projects by comparing the cost benefits of implementing BIM with the fees required. This research provides a methodology to calculate and quantify the cost of using BIM on retrofit projects and evaluate whether BIM is a worthwhile investment for owners. There are three objectives of this research: 1. Identify the factors used in calculating the cost benefits of using BIM in retrofit projects. 2. Develop a systematic approach to cost analysis to quantify the cost benefits of using BIM in retrofit projects. 3. Perform a cost analysis to investigate whether there are economic benefits of using BIM compared to not using BIM for retrofit projects. A comprehensive literature review is conducted to understand the benefits of implementing BIM in construction projects. After determining the factors that could be used to quantify the benefits of using BIM in retrofit projects, a methodology is developed for the quantification of these benefits into a cost. The developed methodology is applied to a real-life retrofit project. The potential cost benefits of implementing BIM in this project are calculated based on measurable cost benefits associated with reduced change orders and reduced schedule overruns. A cost analysis has been performed using the cost benefits and the fees required for implementing BIM in a retrofit project. The research shows that the use of BIM has prevented five change orders in the real-life project. The change orders would have resulted in rework costs as well as schedule overruns. The cost of rework and penalties due to schedule overruns caused by the change orders are calculated. The cost analysis shows that in some scenarios the fee required to implement BIM is higher than the cost benefits of using BIM, and in some scenarios the fee required to implement BIM is lower than the cost benefits. In one of the scenarios, BIM has resulted in a loss of 59% of the fees required to implement BIM in the retrofit project, and in another scenario, BIM has resulted in a gain of 17%. This research attempts to analyze the cost related to the use of BIM in a retrofit project. The research results provide the owners and the general contractors with an estimate of the cost related to BIM use in the project.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Development of a framework to determine the relative weights of contextual factors for complex highway projects
    (Colorado State University. Libraries, 2017) Sinha, Akanksha, author; Ozbek, Mehmet E., advisor; Strong, Kelly C., committee member; Atadero, Rebecca, committee member
    Traditional project management strategies for highway projects originated with the advent of new construction during the 1950s and 1960s focusing on three dimensions of complexity i.e. cost, schedule and technical (scope). But recently with the major focus shifting towards reconstruction/ rehabilitation projects, the project management strategies also need to shift to include other dimensions rather than perceiving them as risks. A paper by Winter and Smith (2006), "Rethinking Project Management", introduced five new directions to consider while preparing a risk management strategy for complex projects. Following this, a research was conducted by the Second Strategic Highway Research Program, R-10, to study the factors that impact the construction of complex highway projects. The primary outcome of the R-10 study was a five-dimensional approach to project management planning (5DPM) that adds context and financing as two new dimensions to the traditional dimensions of cost, schedule, and technical. Experience during the pilot testing of the 5DPM implementation suggested that the most complicated dimension to assess during the project management planning phase for a complex project is the context dimension which refers to the external factors that have an impact on the project and are difficult to predict and plan for before the start of the project. Currently there is no structured process for evaluating these factors and they are mostly perceived as risks. The R-10 research team identified 8 factor categories which are: stakeholders, project-specific demands, resource availability, environmental, legal and legislative requirements, global and national events, unusual conditions and localized issues and 26 factors under these categories which can cause complexity. The research developed a framework to identify the contextual factors relevant to each specific project and determine the relative weights of these contextual factors using a well-structured approach, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Two complex projects within the state of Colorado, U.S. 34 Rebuild and I-25 North Expansion project, were chosen to illustrate the implementation of the developed framework. The primary reason for selecting AHP method was the requirement of pairwise comparison of intangibles derived through the judgement of the experts in a structured mathematical method. The Group AHP was further performed to develop the overall ranking of the contextual factors as a group. The major finding of this study was that as a group, the US 34 Rebuild team valued procedural laws and land acquisition as the most important factor followed by work-zone visualization and marketing and public relations. For the I-25 team, the most important factor was procedural laws followed by limitations and constraints and project management capabilities. The most striking difference between the factor weights for both the projects was that the weights were more evenly distributed between factors for US-34, whereas for I-25, few factors had very high weights while few others had exceptionally low weights. This framework will enable the project management teams of complex highway projects to determine the relevant weights of the factors during the project management planning phase which can help them in making important decisions at the early stages of the project. Through the development of this framework, this study helps transportation agencies identify the contextual factors and prioritize them right from the start in a structured manner rather than perceiving them as risks for their projects.