- ItemOpen AccessWhat makes a hunting experience memorable?(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Saayman, Melville, speaker; van der Merwe, Peet, speaker; van Hoven, Wouter, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producerGrowth in the number of game farms and hunting lodges (operators) in Southern Africa has created fierce competition amongst these hunting operations. In order to remain competitive it is important to determine what hunters regard as important in order to have a memorable experience. The literature review revealed that different markets (hunters) have different expectations and needs and for that reason the purpose of this paper is to determine the aspects that contribute to a memorable experience of foreign (trophy) hunters who hunted in South Africa in 2013. In addition the paper will also determine which socio demographic and behavioural variables influence memorability. This was achieved by conducting a structured questionnaire survey and the results are of high importance to hunting operators and product developers alike. It is also the first time that such a study is conducted amongst South African international hunters.
- ItemOpen AccessZooming in on trophy hunter's spending(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Saayman, M., speaker; van der Merwe, P., speaker; van Hoven, Wouter, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producerThe purpose of this paper is to determine the determinants of trophy (international) hunters spending in South Africa. Hunters in South Africa can be divided into two categories namely biltong (primarily local hunters) and trophy (primarily foreign hunters) and hunting makes a significant contribution to the tourism industry and the economy in general. One of the key contributors or ingredients of economic impact studies is tourists (hunters) spending, and the 9000 international hunters spend approximately R1.2 billion in 2013 which can still be increased. The reason being that hunting lodges and game farmers are mostly located in rural provinces with high rates of unemployment. Therefore this research can help practitioners and marketers alike to focus their marketing and development activities and resources on these variables. The research was conducted by means of a structured web based questionnaire survey and this is the first time that the determinants have been identified in South Africa which has a vibrant hunting industry.
- ItemOpen AccessInternal audit and wildlife ranching: friend or foe?(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Reilly, Yvonne, speaker; van Hoven, Wouter, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producerSouth Africa is unique in world terms having spawned a significant wildlife industry. This industry encompasses some 17% of the land surface area in which private and corporate landowners extensively ranch between 16 and 20 million indigenous animals, mostly ungulates. The economic value of the industry annually exceeds 1 billion USD. The enormous amount of time, money and other resources that are invested in the wildlife ranching industry of South Africa presents serious challenges for the future; if this industry wants to ensure that its current status quo remains intact. This sector fulfills a pivotal role in the economy of S.A and therefore to ensure that this role is maintained in the future, the assistance of internal auditing is crucial. This discipline developed by addressing all the needs of different stakeholders. The internal audit is defined as: An independent objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an entities operation. It assists an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness at risk management, control and governance processes (IIA2009). This paper examines the wider management issues of wildlife ranching by reviewing whether all the stated objectives are achieved effectively, efficiently and economically. The three spheres that form the extent of internal audit, that of risk management, control and governance are applied on different wildlife ranching issues. Examples of corporate governance perspective where a balance must be created between performance and conformance to achieve objectives, are applied on issues such as ethics of lion hunting, ivory trading and trophy hunting control. Risk management techniques are explored by applying various techniques on important wildlife ranching issues e.g. monitoring of wildlife. This paper further aims to ensure that wildlife ranching will in future rely on internal audits to make recommendations. It will assist them to achieve their objectives more efficiently, effectively and economically, as well as adding value in a consulting perspective as and if needed. Integrity, openness/transparency and accountability must prevail intact in the wildlife ranching industry if this industry wants to persist and grow, particularly in the light of future community potential stakeholder status and official interest in the governance within the industry. Internal audits can thus drive sustainability and add to the success of this, an important industry in a green economy worldwide, in particular the region and South Africa.
- ItemOpen AccessGame ranching in South Africa: biodiversity conservation or agriculture?(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Reilly, Brian, speaker; van Hoven, Wouter, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producerSouth Africa is unique in having created an extensive game ranching industry across a wide range of indigenous ungulates to pachyderms and even large predators. From small beginnings by a handful of private landowners and forward thinking conservationists this industry now encompasses approximately 17% of the countries land surface area and herds may number as many as 20 million ungulates. The industry has an annual turnover exceeding a billion USD and is a significant contributor to the burgeoning green economy that includes ecotourism, hunting and many allied industries such as fencing, infrastructure and equipment as well as a host of consultants and practitioners from veterinarians, translocators, ecologists and other professionals. The industry has contributed significantly to the conservation of a number of species such as white rhino, black wildebeest, sable and roan antelope and a number of meta-populations are now biased towards private land more than in official protected areas. The industry has now reached a crossroads in terms of its divergence into more specialized intensive breeding of species for specific traits such as trophy size and colour variation and a departure in many instances from the official conservation objectives of the country. This paper will discuss the current status and position of the industry in relation to the official conservation stance and unbundle the contributory factors to the threatening conflict between the conservation fraternity and game ranching industry. The paper will further propose potential ways forward in dealing with this unique state of affairs in South Africa considering that communal lands and many commercial farmers consider wildlife a viable option for the future.
- ItemOpen AccessA new era of harvest on private lands in the USA: when should we manage pheasants like fish?(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014-09) Powell, Larkin, speaker; van Hoven, Wouter, moderator; International Wildlife Ranching Symposium, producerHunters on public and private lands in the USA are regulated by harvest and possession limits. Wildlife managers rarely design spatially-explicit regulations or quotas for individual properties. Two policies on private lands could affect local harvest dynamics: fee hunting and guided hunting on private lands, and payments by states to private landowners to obtain Open Access rights for public use. These could result in higher levels of harvest on specific parcels of privately owned land, suggesting the need for new methods to prevent over-harvest. A third dynamic may have synergistic effects: fragmentation of private forests, wetlands, and grasslands has increased to the point that dispersal of game animals could be affected. I used spatial simulations to show how animals such as northern bobwhite, deer, and ring-necked pheasants can be legally over-harvested when multiple parties hunt the same parcel of land. During scenarios based on observed rates of use on Open Access-type lands in Nebraska, male pheasants were not predicted to survive the hunting season, and over 85% of female pheasants were illegally harvested when error rates were 1% per hunting party. Spatial modeling suggests that the level of fragmentation in eastern Nebraska does not allow the dispersal of pheasants to repopulate depleted areas. Shorter hunting seasons and state-supported monitoring should be implemented on Open Access lands that have high use potential. Also, landowners who engage in fee hunting should have their lands monitored to establish suggested harvest levels or quotas to protect the public resource.