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Integrated flood management model: a socio-technical systems approach to overcome institutional problems in Jakarta




Akmalah, Emma, author
Grigg, Neil S., advisor
Fontane, Darrell G., committee member
Salas, Jose D., committee member
Vlachos, Evan C., committee member

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Urban flooding is a systemic problem of urban areas in developing countries, which face other difficult problems of urbanization, social inequality, and environmental degradation. The threats may overwhelm the institutional capacity to respond and cities may be unable to cope with the consequences. Although floods are triggered by natural events, the hazards they present are also affected by the social, economic, and political environments where people live. Low-income people suffer most from flood disasters because they tend to live in flood-prone areas, often do not understand the hazards they face, and lack institutional support. This urgent situation of flooding in developing countries led to this study, which uses systems analysis tools to address flood disaster problems from multiple perspectives. Since flooding in Jakarta is a complex socio-technical problem, an integrated approach is used to show how to reduce the risk and mitigate the effects of flooding. The flood management system should be regarded as an integral part of the urban system, which displays very dynamic behavior among its subsystems. The urban system analysis showed the links among attractiveness of the city, migration, poverty, lack of community cohesion, overwhelmed infrastructure and management systems, and the resulting succession of flood disasters. The study applies a model of institutional, socio-economic, technical, financial, and environmental aspects of flooding in developing countries and uses a case study of flooding in Jakarta, Indonesia to test hypotheses about managing flood hazards in an integrated manner. The management model is based on an Integrated Flood Management approach to: identify stakeholders’ roles, responsibilities, and actions to solve the problems; identify gaps between the disaster responses needed and provided; and build collaborative actions among stakeholders to overcome institutional problems. It seeks to identify appropriate flood management strategies that are sensitive to local conditions. An integrated approach emphasizes community participation and a combination of structural and non-structural measures for flood mitigation programs and is directed to both short-term and long-term impacts and consequences. It also presents a framework for institutional analysis to ensure the political commitment for a proper institutional coordination, resources mobilization and enhancement of preparedness. As a key path to a solution to the flood problem in Jakarta, the integrated approach must involve all relevant sectors and communities. This will require a paradigm shift in how flood problems are identified, addressed, and solved. Such an approach must involve a mutual effort at the institutional and community levels by enhancing institutional capacity at the local government level as well as empowerment of the total community. The suggested model can be used in order to help policy makers develop an effective and comprehensive flood management strategy, solve flood problems, and improve local conditions. Considering that many large cities in developing countries face similar problems, the analysis and the case study can provide an example to help other flood-prone cities with similar characteristics and pattern of urban development.


Covers not scanned.
Print version deaccessioned 2022.

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Flood control -- Indonesia -- Jakarta
Floodplain management -- Indonesia -- Jakarta


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