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Adult onset male hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment




Akagi Bath, Natalie, author
Legare, Marie, advisor
Dooley, Greg, committee member
Moreno, Julie, committee member
Nickoloff, Jac, committee member
Popichak, Katriana, committee member

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Hypogonadism affects an estimated 2–4 million American men with increasing prevalence seen in older men. Normal aging processes lead to decreased biological production of testosterone. However, levels below physiologic function can decrease the quality of life and the life expectancy of men. A clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism, results from this failure to produce testosterone and or normal amounts of sperm and is more commonly referred to as low-Testosterone (low-T). Pharmacologic intervention with exogenous testosterone, hormone replacement therapy, can improve quality of life. However, this intervention is not without risks and should only be done when serum testosterone is below 300 ng/ml and is accompanied with symptoms associated with low testosterone. The aims of this work are to report the most commonly-used clinical symptoms associated with low-T for diagnosis, to provide a list of risks associated with hormone replacement therapy, and to analyze the different forms of pharmacologic intervention known commonly as Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT).


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male hypogonadism
testosterone replacement therapy


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