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Integrated decision-making for urban raw water supply in developing countries




Soentoro, Edy Anto, author
Grigg, Neil S., advisor
Fontane, Darrell G., committee member
Vlachos, Evan C., committee member
Zahran, Sammy, committee member

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Rapid urbanization and development are causing severe problems of raw water extraction and related environmental and social impacts in developing countries. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach to decision making could help solve these problems. A case study of raw water management in the region of Jabotabek, Indonesia, which is in and around Jakarta, exhibited social and environmental problems including land-subsidence. The integrated approach was applied in a simulated planning process for raw water development, to include consideration of the economic, environmental and social demands, the hydrological system, and the institutional systems that exist in particular areas. Simulation and optimization techniques (Supply_sim model) were used to determine the planned water allocation for a series of demand clusters for a suite of alternatives and development strategies. A multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a decision support system (DSS) was used as an Integrated Decision-Making model to analyze the important and related aspects as one integrated system and to find the best set of decision options. The overall result of the study showed that the integrated approach could improve the decision process to solve the problem. However, its success ultimately depends on the political will of the government to apply the approach. The government needs to improve coordination among the institutions related to raw water supply development and to carry out a transparent decision-making process. Regulations on land-use planning, groundwater abstraction and water pollution control should be applied strictly and aimed to maintain raw water sources. The study also showed that a decision process tool such as the DSS within an integrated framework of decision making could help decision makers to reach consensus and gain stakeholder participation, accountability and commitment to the decision being made. In dealing with complex raw water problems in large cities, the study also showed that planning systems could help decision makers to think systematically to improve the decision results.


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urban raw water supply
water resources development
MCDA (multi-criteria decision analysis)


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