Comparisons of precipitation measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer and multiparameter radar
Bringi, V. N., author
Turk, Joseph, author
Vivekanandan, J., author
Multiparameter microwave radar measurements are based on dual-polarization and dual-frequency techniques and are well suited for microphysical inferences of complex precipitating clouds, since they depend upon the size, shape, composition, and orientation of a collection of discrete random scatterers. Passive microwave radiometer observations represent path integrated scattering and absorption phenomena of the same scatterers. The response of the upwelling brightness temperatures TB to the precipitation structure depends on the vertical distribution of the various hydrometeors and gases, and the surface features. As a result, combinations of both active and passive techniques contain great potential to markedly improve the longstanding issue of precipitation measurement from space. The NASA airborne Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CP-2 multiparameter radar were jointly operated during the 1991 Convection and Precipitation/Electrification experiment (CaPE) in central Florida. The AMPR is a four channel, high resolution, across-track scanning total power radiometer system using the identical multifrequency feedhorn as the widely utilized Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) satellite system. Surface and precipitation features are separable based on the TB behavior as a function of the AMPR channels. The radar observations are presented in a remapped format suitable for comparison with the multifrequency AMPR imagery. Striking resemblances are noted between the AMPR imagery and the radar reflectivity at successive heights, while vertical profiles of the CP-2 products along the nadir trace suggest a storm structure consistent with the viewed AMPR TB. Directly over the storm cores, the difference between the 37 and 85 GHz TB was noted to approach (and in some cases fall below) zero. Microwave radiative transfer computations show that this is theoretically possible for hail regions suspended aloft in the core of strong convective storms.
remote sensing by radar