Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Lear, Kevin L., author
Hadley, G. Ronald, author
Crawford, Mary Hagerott, author
Choquette, Kent D., author
Chow, W. W. (Weng W.), author
This paper discusses the issues involving the design and fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's). A review of the basic experimental structures is given, with emphasis on recent developments in distributed Bragg reflectors, gain media, as well as current and optical confinement techniques. The paper describes present VCSEL performance, in particular, those involving selective oxidation and visible wavelength operation.
semiconductor device fabrication