Match me if you can! Plant-insect interactions in common cow parsnip Heracleum maximum (Apiaceae)
Smith, Brittany N., author
Leipzig-Scott, Peter, author
Ode, Paul, author
Anthropogenic climate change is altering the ecology of habitats and the life histories of species that live within it. Not only does climate change influence phenologies and geographic ranges of individual species, but variation in temperature and precipitation can affect how and when species interact. Ecological interactions between plants and their insects, pollinators and herbivores, are affected by abiotic and biotic factors, such as; temperature, allelochemicals, and herbivory. In our study, cow parsnip Heracleum maximum Bartram (Apiaceae), in a changing elevation gradient, may experience fitness differences if its phenology is matched or mismatched with its pollinators and/or herbivores.