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Application of the variational method for correction of wet ice attenuation for X-band dual-polarized radar




Tolstoy, Leonid, author
Bringi, V. N., advisor
Chandrasekar, V., advisor
Notaros, B., committee member
Kummerow, C. D., committee member

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In recent years there has been a huge interest in the development and use of dual-polarized radar systems operating at X-band (~10 GHz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is due to the fact that these systems are smaller and cheaper allowing for a network to be built, for example, for short range (typically < 30-40 km) hydrological applications. Such networks allow for higher cross-beam spatial resolutions while cheaper pedestals supporting a smaller antenna also allows for higher temporal resolution as compared with large S-band (long range) systems used by the National Weather Service. Dual-polarization radar techniques allow for correction of the strong attenuation of the electromagnetic radar signal due to rain at X-band and higher frequencies. However, practical attempts to develop reliable correction algorithms have been cumbered by the need to deal with the rather large statistical fluctuations or "noise" in the measured polarization parameters. Recently, the variational method was proposed, which overcomes this problem by using the forward model for polarization variables, and uses iterative approach to minimize the difference between modeled and observed values, in a least squares sense. This approach also allows for detection of hail and determination of the fraction of reflectivity due to the hail when the precipitation shaft is composed of a mixture of rain and hail. It was shown that this approach works well with S-band radar data. The purpose of this research is to extend the application of the variational method to the X-band dual-polarization radar data. The main objective is to correct for attenuation caused by rain mixed with wet ice hydrometeors (e.g., hail) in deep convection. The standard dual-polarization method of attenuation-correction using the differential propagation phase between H and V polarized waves cannot account for wet ice hydrometeors along the propagation path. The ultimate goal is to develop a feasible and robust variational-based algorithm for rain and hail attenuation correction for the Collaborate Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) project.


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