Indoor positioning with deep learning for mobile IoT systems
Wang, Liping, author
Pasricha, Sudeep, advisor
Kim, Ryan, committee member
Zhao, Jianguo, committee member
The development of human-centric services with mobile devices in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT) has opened the possibility of merging indoor positioning technologies with various mobile applications to deliver stable and responsive indoor navigation and localization functionalities that can enhance user experience within increasingly complex indoor environments. But as GPS signals cannot easily penetrate modern building structures, it is challenging to build reliable indoor positioning systems (IPS). Currently, Wi-Fi sensing based indoor localization techniques are gaining in popularity as a means to build accurate IPS, benefiting from the prevalence of 802.11 family. Wi-Fi fingerprinting based indoor localization has shown remarkable performance over geometric mapping in complex indoor environments by taking advantage of pattern matching techniques. Today, the two main information extracted from Wi-Fi signals to form fingerprints are Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) and Channel State Information (CSI) with Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation, where the former can provide the average localization error around or under 10 meters but has low hardware and software requirements, while the latter has a higher chance to estimate locations with ultra-low distance errors but demands more resources from chipsets, firmware/software environments, etc. This thesis makes two novel contributions towards realizing viable IPS on mobile devices using RSSI and CSI information, and deep machine learning based fingerprinting. Due to the larger quantity of data and more sophisticated signal patterns to create fingerprints in complex indoor environments, conventional machine learning algorithms that need carefully engineered features suffer from the challenges of identifying features from very high dimensional data. Hence, the abilities of approximation functions generated from conventional machine learning models to estimate locations are limited. Deep machine learning based approaches can overcome these challenges to realize scalable feature pattern matching approaches such as fingerprinting. However, deep machine learning models generally require considerable memory footprint, and this creates a significant issue on resource-constrained devices such as mobile IoT devices, wearables, smartphones, etc. Developing efficient deep learning models is a critical factor to lower energy consumption for resource intensive mobile IoT devices and accelerate inference time. To address this issue, our first contribution proposes the CHISEL framework, which is a Wi-Fi RSSI- based IPS that incorporates data augmentation and compression-aware two-dimensional convolutional neural networks (2D CAECNNs) with different pruning and quantization options. The proposed model compression techniques help reduce model deployment overheads in the IPS. Unlike RSSI, CSI takes advantages of multipath signals to potentially help indoor localization algorithms achieve a higher level of localization accuracy. The compensations for magnitude attenuation and phase shifting during wireless propagation generate different patterns that can be utilized to define the uniqueness of different locations of signal reception. However, all prior work in this domain constrains the experimental space to relatively small-sized and rectangular rooms where the complexity of building interiors and dynamic noise from human activities, etc., are seldom considered. As part of our second contribution, we propose an end-to-end deep learning based framework called CSILoc for Wi-Fi CSI-based IPS on mobile IoT devices. The framework includes CSI data collection, clustering, denoising, calibration and classification, and is the first study to verify the feasibility to use CSI for floor level indoor localization with minimal knowledge of Wi-Fi access points (APs), thus avoiding security concerns during the offline data collection process.
Includes bibliographical references.
Includes bibliographical references.