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Identifying and characterizing the influence of cattle production history and lean muscle characteristics on specific beef flavor attributes




Adams, Tanner Scott, author
Woerner, Dale R., advisor
Legako, Jerrad F., committee member
Tatum, J. Daryl, committee member
Belk, Keith E., committee member
Enns, Kellie J., committee member

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Experiments were conducted on ground beef patties as well as pure fat and lean samples manufactured using various sources and production techniques. Differences among 5 cattle types, 3 muscle types, and 3 lean percentages were evaluated for descriptive sensory analysis, fatty acid composition, volatile compound composition, and amino acid composition. Furthermore, an olfactory detection port (ODP) was used while analyzing volatiles to detect odorous compounds. Cattle types, breed and days-on-feed (DOF), evaluated included F1 Wagyu-Angus crosses (450 DOF), long-fed natural Holsteins (350 DOF), short-fed retail Holsteins (250 DOF), long-fed conventional beef (200 DOF), and short-fed beef (90 DOF). Muscles included in this study were Pectorales profundi (high connective tissue), Longissimus dorsi (intermediate connective tissue), and Psoas major (low connective tissue). Lean percentages of ground beef included 90%, 80%, and 70%. All sources were used in combination as a factorial design with 5 cattle types mixed with 3 muscles at 3 different lean percentages (5x3x3) with one treatment consisting of 45 samples with 5 replications (N=225). Trained panelists evaluated ground beef patties from each treatment and replication for 8 different flavor notes, including beefy/brothy, browned/grilled, buttery/beef fat, bloody/metallic, grassy/fishy, earthy/mushroom, nutlike/roasted nut, and livery/organy. Initial analyses consisted of least-square-means to determine differences among breed, muscle, and lean percentage and the interactions among them. These results were significant (P < 0.05) for two-way and three-way interactions; however, no plausible data could be interpreted from the analysis. Further analyses with principal component analysis were used to determine relationships between amino acids, fatty acids, volatiles, and sensory panels with cattle type and muscle separately. Relationships were identified and used to identify certain attributes as possible contributions to beef flavor. Additionally, nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to access clustering using pairwise comparisons. This showed significant (P < 0.05) differences among cattle type treatments with small variance between samples while muscle treatments were not significant (P > 0.05) and encountered large variance between samples.


2016 Spring.
Includes bibliographical references.

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