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Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa




Maisels, Fiona, author
Strindberg, Samantha, author
Blake, Stephen, author
Wittemyer, George, author
Hart, John, author
Williamson, Elizabeth A., author
Aba'a, Rostand, author
Abitsi, Gaspard, author
Ambahe, Ruffin D., author
Amsini, Fidèl, author

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African forest elephants - taxonomically and functionally unique - are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002-2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced.


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elephant population
Loxodonta africana
L. cyclotis
Central Africa
IUCN Red List


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