Butterfly hostplant records, 1992-2005, with a treatise on the evolution of Erynnis, and a note on new terminology for mate-locating behavior

Hostplants of larvae, based on 1,014 records (including 474 records of ovipositions and 540 discoveries of eggs, larvae, or pupae in nature) from 1992 through 2005, are presented for butterflies (including skippers), mostly from Colorado, and some from Wyoming, Nebraska, and Minnesota. New life histories are given, including many notes on egg placement, overwintering stage, behavior, and ecology. Larvae and pupae of Colo. Cyllopsis pertepida can be either green or tan, and thus retain a seasonal polyphenism that is present in other Cyllopsis even though only one generation occurs in Colo. Erebia magdalena oviposits on large boulders. Phyciodes picta evidently eats an annual gummy aster in much of the northern part of its range. Still another bog butterfly has been found to be polyphagous (Pyrgus centaureae), adding to the many polyphagous bog butterflies previously known (many Boloria, Colias scudderii); Speyeria mormonia eurynome might be semipolyphagous as well, though conclusive evidence is unavailable. Cercyonis (sthenele) meadii oviposits in shade north of pine trees near its sedge host that grows in that shade. Coenonympha tullia has green and brown larval forms, and striped and unstriped pupal forms. Erebia epipsodea oviposits high on its grass hosts in the foothills, low on its grass hosts in the alpine zone, to moderate the temperature of the eggs. The pupa of Chlosyne palla calydon is black-and white, versus brown in Calif. C. palla palla. Thorybes pylades and Everes amyntula specialize on tendril-bearing (pea "vine") herbaceous legumes. Stinga morrisoni is the only known butterfly that chooses large bunch-grasses (seven species) of many grass taxa. Paratrytone snowi eats only Muhlenbergia montana. Erynnis icelus oviposits only on seedlings. The evolution of Erynnis is discussed, using many new characters of larvae and pupae and valval flexion. Mature larvae of some Pyrginae (Pyrgus communis, Pholisora catullus) that diapause become reddish in color, whereas non-diapausing mature larvae remain greenish. An appendix provides new terminology for describing mate-locating behavior.
April 28, 2006.
Includes bibliographical references.
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