Involvement of CYP72A219 in herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth and the role of P450 reductase in the mechanism of metabolic resistance
Herbicide resistance in weeds poses a major challenge to modern agriculture worldwide, impacting effective weed control strategies. Metabolic resistance stands out as the major and more complex resistance mechanism due to its ability to metabolize a wide range of herbicides within weed species. Metabolic resistance involves herbicide metabolism through three key phases: activation, conjugation, and sequestration. These phases involve the action of important enzymes such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, and ABC transporters. Metabolic resistance mechanisms have gained prominence in the past decade, posing significant challenges to sustainable agriculture and weed management practices. Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) one of the most troublesome weeds globally has evolved metabolic resistance to HPPD inhibitor tembotrione. Understanding and addressing the mechanism are crucial for developing effective strategies to combat herbicide resistance and ensure global crop production. In the present study, four upregulated P450 genes were identified in HPPD-resistant Palmer amaranth from Nebraska (NER), a troublesome weed species. Among these genes, CYP72A219_4284 demonstrated the ability to deactivate the herbicide tembotrione in a heterologous system. This gene was also upregulated in metabolic HPPD-resistant Palmer amaranth plants from different fields across the United States, indicating its involvement in conferring herbicide resistance. Our study also investigated the regulation of these resistance genes, including the promoter sequences and transcription factors involved. Additionally, quantitative trait loci associated with herbicide resistance were identified. This work represents the first identification and validation of genes responsible for herbicide metabolism in Palmer amaranth. Validation of the metabolic resistant gene and the exploration of regulatory mechanisms contribute to a better understanding of metabolic herbicide resistance in weeds, facilitating the development of effective weed management strategies. Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), an essential enzyme localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, provides electrons for P450 enzymes during monooxygenase reactions. The transfer of electrons from NADPH to the P450 active site occurs through a complex CPR:P450 interaction. Despite the numerous P450 genes in plant genomes, CPR genes are limited, typically consisting of two or three copies. In Arabidopsis, the two CPR genes, ATR1 and ATR2, have distinct roles in primary and inducible metabolism, respectively. Our study investigated the function of ATR1 and ATR2 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the CYP81A12, which is known to metabolize a wide range of herbicides. The hypothesis was that silencing these ATR1 or ATR2 genes would lead to a reduction of P450 activity involved in herbicide metabolism. ATR1 predominantly transfers electrons to CYP81A12, as knocking down ATR1 led to a significant reduction in herbicide resistance. Knockouts of the ATR2 gene also resulted in decreased herbicide resistance, although the effect was less pronounced. Variation in the number and function of CPR genes among different weed species suggests diverse genetic pressures and potential targets for herbicide resistance management. Inhibition of CPR activity could be a promising approach to restore herbicide effectiveness against metabolic herbicide-resistant weeds. This is the first study to our knowledge that explores the involvement of CPR genes in herbicide resistance in weeds, providing valuable insights into their crucial role. The findings significantly advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying CPR-mediated herbicide resistance and offer potential targets for the development of effective weed management strategies.
Includes bibliographical references.
Embargo expires: 12/29/2024.
cytochrome P450 reductase
cytochrome P450 monooxygenase