Nutrient analysis of ten raw U.S. beef variety meat items and beef flavor myology
Kesterson, Hannah Faith, author
Woerner, Dale R., advisor
Belk, Keith E., committee member
Engle, Terry E., committee member
Bellows, Laura L., committee member
Many factors play a role in decision-making related to food and diet; these are closely linked to preferences and personal values in populations with access to a safe and affordable food supply. Many consumers value both nutrition and flavor preferences when making individual choices that ultimately comprise their overall diet pattern. Therefore, it is critical to maintain current, valid information regarding both the sensory profile and nutrient content of foods in the marketplace. Two studies were performed on edible portions of beef carcasses; the first evaluated nutritional value of beef variety meat items in order to update the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Composition Database. Nutrition information in databases maintained by the USDA is used as groundwork by various groups for several purposes, including nutrition monitoring activities, research, policy creation, and nutritional labeling. However, up-to-date nutrition information is not available for beef variety meat items. Therefore, the objective of this study was to expand availability of nutrient data for beef variety meat items. Beef heart, liver, kidney, tongue, honeycomb tripe, oxtail, marrow bones, testicles, blood, and bone broth were obtained from facilities in the United States. Standardized procedures were used to dissect and homogenize samples. Nutrient analysis occurred at USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) approved laboratories using validated methods and standards. Each of the variety meat items in this study qualifies for at least one "Good Source" or "Excellent Source" labeling claim as defined by the USDA based on the proportion of separable lean component. "Good source" indicates that a product contains 10-19% of the Daily Value (DV) or Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) per Reference Amount Customarily Consumed (RACC) for that nutrient, while "Excellent Source" designates that the food contains at least 20% of the DV or RDI per RACC for that nutrient. Additionally, Vitamin K2 has been studied recently to ascertain beneficial effects on human health, and this nutrient was present in all samples analyzed. This study provides current, analytically-derived nutrient information for U.S. beef variety meat items. Results reflect that these variety meat items could be beneficial in providing essential vitamins and minerals as a component of a healthy diet. This data will be valuable for use by the meat industry, those selling variety meats, researchers, dietetic professionals, and consumers. The objective of the second experiment was to evaluate effects of quality grade, final internal temperature, and cooking method on sensory profile of five beef muscles: rectus femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, triceps brachii, and teres major, in order to characterize sensory characteristics of these cuts. Two quality grades (USDA Select, Upper 2/3 Choice/Top Choice), three cooking methods (grill, pan grill, oven roast), and three final internal temperatures (58.3°C, 70°C, and 80°C) were included; each of 102 unique treatment combinations were replicated six times. Vacuum packaged beef was purchased directly from a commercial beef harvest facility, fabricated 14 days post-production, and frozen at -20°C until analysis. Each sample was rated by a trained sensory panel for flavor, tenderness, and juiciness factors. Although muscles were not compared directly, muscle differences did exist relative to treatment effects. Degree of doneness had the greatest impact across all muscles evaluated, with higher final temperatures related to greater (P < 0.05) beef ID, browned, and roasted notes in most muscles and decreased (P < 0.05) tenderness. Additionally, panelists rated samples as having greater amounts of bloody/serumy, metallic, and sour flavors (P < 0.05) when cooked to lower end-point temperatures. Cooking method affected flavor note ratings for all muscles, with oven roasting producing increased (P < 0.05) cardboardy, earthy/musty, and sour flavors, whereas pan grilling resulted in more intense bitter and burnt flavors (P < 0.05). Quality grade had a minimal impact on the muscles included in the study. Association of volatile aromatic compounds with specific treatments also varied based on muscle. Overall, the 80°C and pan grilling treatments were related to the most volatile compounds compared to other treatments; primarily pyrazines, alkanes, and alkenes. These results highlighted the importance of understanding the properties of individual cuts in order to best utilize them for a positive eating experience. In combination with previous research, these data will be used to develop a resource that characterizes sensory characteristics of lesser-utilized beef cuts to benefit the meat industry, foodservice operations, in-home cooks, and ultimately beef consumers.
Includes bibliographical references.
Includes bibliographical references.