Geographic variation and new taxa of western North American butterflies, especially from Colorado

Garhart, Matthew C., author
Stout, Todd, author
Kondla, Norbert G., author
Spomer, Stephen M., author
Fisher, Michael S., author
Scott, James A., author
Wright, David M., author
Marrone, Gary M., author
James A. Scott, publisher
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Michael Fisher is currently updating the 1957 book Colorado Butterflies, by F. Martin Brown, J. Donald Eff, and Bernard Rotger (Fisher 2005a, 2005b, 2006). This project has emphasized the necessity of naming certain butterflies in Colorado and vicinity that are distinctive, but currently have no name, as part of our goal of applying correct species/subspecies names to all Colorado butterflies. Eleven of those distinctive butterflies are named here, in the genera Anthocharis, Neominois, Asterocampa, Argynnis (Speyeria), Euphydryas, Lycaena, and Hesperia. New life histories are reported for species or subspecies of Neominois & Oeneis & Euphydryas & Lycaena that were recently described or recently elevated in status. Lycaena florus differs in hostplant, egg morphology, and somewhat in a seta on 1st-stage larvae. We also report the results of research elsewhere in North America that was needed to determine which of the current subspecies names should be applied to other butterflies in Colorado, in the genera Anthocharis, Neominois, Apodemia, Callophrys, Atlides, Euphilotes, PlebeJus, Polites, & Hylephila. This research has added additional species to the total of Colorado butterflies. Nomenclatural problems in Colorado Lycaena & Callophrys are settled with lectotypes and designations of type localities and two pending petitions to suppress toxotaxa. Difficulties with the ICZN Code in properly applying names to clines are explored, and new terminology is given to some necessary biological solutions.
Dec. 3, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references (pages 67-68).
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