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Robust and secure resource management for automotive cyber-physical systems




Kukkala, Vipin Kumar, author
Pasricha, Sudeep, advisor
Maciejewski, Anthony, committee member
Pezeshki, Ali, committee member
Bradley, Thomas, committee member

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Modern vehicles are examples of complex cyber-physical systems with tens to hundreds of interconnected Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that manage various vehicular subsystems. With the shift towards autonomous driving, emerging vehicles are being characterized by an increase in the number of hardware ECUs, greater complexity of applications (software), and more sophisticated in-vehicle networks. These advances have resulted in numerous challenges that impact the reliability, security, and real-time performance of these emerging automotive systems. Some of the challenges include coping with computation and communication uncertainties (e.g., jitter), developing robust control software, detecting cyber-attacks, ensuring data integrity, and enabling confidentiality during communication. However, solutions to overcome these challenges incur additional overhead, which can catastrophically delay the execution of real-time automotive tasks and message transfers. Hence, there is a need for a holistic approach to a system-level solution for resource management in automotive cyber-physical systems that enables robust and secure automotive system design while satisfying a diverse set of system-wide constraints. ECUs in vehicles today run a variety of automotive applications ranging from simple vehicle window control to highly complex Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications. The aggressive attempts of automakers to make vehicles fully autonomous have increased the complexity and data rate requirements of applications and further led to the adoption of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) based techniques for improved perception and control. Additionally, modern vehicles are becoming increasingly connected with various external systems to realize more robust vehicle autonomy. These paradigm shifts have resulted in significant overheads in resource constrained ECUs and increased the complexity of the overall automotive system (including heterogeneous ECUs, network architectures, communication protocols, and applications), which has severe performance and safety implications on modern vehicles. The increased complexity of automotive systems introduces several computation and communication uncertainties in automotive subsystems that can cause delays in applications and messages, resulting in missed real-time deadlines. Missing deadlines for safety-critical automotive applications can be catastrophic, and this problem will be further aggravated in the case of future autonomous vehicles. Additionally, due to the harsh operating conditions (such as high temperatures, vibrations, and electromagnetic interference (EMI)) of automotive embedded systems, there is a significant risk to the integrity of the data that is exchanged between ECUs which can lead to faulty vehicle control. These challenges demand a more reliable design of automotive systems that is resilient to uncertainties and supports data integrity goals. Additionally, the increased connectivity of modern vehicles has made them highly vulnerable to various kinds of sophisticated security attacks. Hence, it is also vital to ensure the security of automotive systems, and it will become crucial as connected and autonomous vehicles become more ubiquitous. However, imposing security mechanisms on the resource constrained automotive systems can result in additional computation and communication overhead, potentially leading to further missed deadlines. Therefore, it is crucial to design techniques that incur very minimal overhead (lightweight) when trying to achieve the above-mentioned goals and ensure the real-time performance of the system. We address these issues by designing a holistic resource management framework called ROSETTA that enables robust and secure automotive cyber-physical system design while satisfying a diverse set of constraints related to reliability, security, real-time performance, and energy consumption. To achieve reliability goals, we have developed several techniques for reliability-aware scheduling and multi-level monitoring of signal integrity. To achieve security objectives, we have proposed a lightweight security framework that provides confidentiality and authenticity while meeting both security and real-time constraints. We have also introduced multiple deep learning based intrusion detection systems (IDS) to monitor and detect cyber-attacks in the in-vehicle network. Lastly, we have introduced novel techniques for jitter management and security management and deployed lightweight IDSs on resource constrained automotive ECUs while ensuring the real-time performance of the automotive systems.


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automotive networks
automotive resource management
cyber-physical systems
automotive reliability
automotive security


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