Advanced control techniques and sensors for gas engines with NSCR

Gattoni, John, author
Olsen, Daniel, advisor
Marchese, Anthony, committee member
Young, Peter, committee member
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High exhaust emissions reduction efficiency from an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) utilizing a Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) catalyst system requires complex fuel control strategies. The allowable equivalence ratio operating range is very narrow where NSCR systems achieve simultaneous reduction of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Total Hydrocarbons (THC), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's), and formaldehyde (CH2O). This range is difficult to maintain as transients are introduced into the system. Current fuel control technologies utilizing lambda sensor feedback are reported to be unable to sustain these demands for extended operation periods. Lambda sensor accuracy is the critical issue with current fuel controllers. The goal of this project was to develop a minimization control algorithm utilizing a Continental NOx sensor installed downstream of the NSCR catalyst system for feedback air/fuel ratio control. When the engine is operated under lean conditions, NOx is produced in the engine out exhaust emissions and the NOx sensor responds accordingly. When the engine is operated under rich burn conditions, the NSCR catalyst system produces Ammonia (NH3). NOx sensors have a cross sensitivity to NH3 and will respond as though it has been exposed to NOx. This behavior provides a unique control strategy that allows lambda sensor calibration to be ignored. Testing was performed on a Cummins-Onan Generator Set, model GGHD 60HZ, capable of a power output of 100kW at standard ambient air conditions. The engine was reconfigured to operate utilizing an electronic gas carburetor (EGC2) with lambda sensor feedback, manufactured by Continental Controls Corporation (CCC) and a high reduction efficiency NSCR catalyst system manufactured by DCL International. A Data Acquisition (DAQ) system manufactured by National Instruments (NI) acquired the NOx sensor output. The control algorithm was programmed utilizing a LabVIEW interface and a feed forward command was executed through the NI DAQ system to the CCC EGC2 where the fuel trim adjustment was physically made. Exhaust gas species measurements were acquired via a Rosemount 5-gas analyzer and a Nicolet 6700 FTIR. Fuel composition was acquired utilizing a Varian CP-4900 Micro GC and Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) was obtained with an ECM AFRecorder 4800R. Results utilizing NOx sensor feedback control revealed that under steady state operating conditions, improvements in emissions reduction efficiency of CO, NOx, and THC were significant. The system was also evaluated during load and fuel composition transients.
2012 Spring.
Includes bibliographical references.
Rights Access
fuel control
NOx sensor
natural gas engines
control algorithm
Associated Publications