Predatory and energetic relations of woodpeckers to the Engelmann spruce beetle
A general theory of the population dynamics of predator-prey systems was developed from a survey of pertinent literature. According to the theory, populations of simplified predator-prey systems fluctuate wildly and periodically. Complicating factors dampen the amplitude of the population fluctuations and thus exert a stabilizing influence on the systems. The predator-prey system between the Northern Three-toed, Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers, and the Engelmann spruce beetle was chosen for an investigation of the population dynamics of a natural predator-prey system. The population densities of ...
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