Altered behavior and cost of manipulation: the acanthocephalan Leptorhyncoides thecatus in its amphipod host Hyalella azteca
Behavioral manipulation occurs when a parasite causes changes in its host's behavior to the parasite's benefit. The parasite benefits from these behavioral changes by increased survival or transmission. It has been hypothesized that such manipulation carries a cost for the parasite because energy allocated to manipulation does not contribute to growth or reproduction. The acanthocephalan parasite Leptorhynchoides thecatus provides a system in which to test this concept. This parasite uses the amphipod Hyalella azteca as an intermediate host and fish as definitive hosts; it has not been previously ...
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Stone, Charles F.