Population ecology of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in estrogen contaminated environments, The
Urban freshwater streams and rivers in arid climates are ecosystems dominated by wastewater effluent. Effluent contains a suite of bioactive chemicals including steroid and non-steroid estrogens that have been shown to disrupt vertebrate endocrine systems in laboratory studies. One of these steroid estrogens is 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic steroid estrogen used in human oral contraceptives. EE2 enters waterways after incomplete removal during wastewater treatment and can disrupt reproduction in fishes. However, little understanding exists of the ecological consequences of reproductive ...
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