Copper transport into the chloroplast and its implications for copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana
Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for most aerobic organisms including plants. It is present as Cu+ or Cu2+, which makes it an ideal cofactor for enzymes involved in processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. Plant cuproproteins are almost ubiquitously found in every cell compartment. The blue Cu protein plastocyanin (PC) is believed to bind the majority of Cu ions in green tissues and is essential for higher plants. Cu reaches the thylakoid lumen through the activity of two P1B-type ATPases called PAA1/HMA6 and PAA2/HMA8 (P-type ATPase of Arabidopsis/Heavy-metal ATPase), which ...
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