Multiply ionized carbon plasmas with index of refraction greater than one
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For decades the analysis of interferometry have relied on the approximation that the index of refraction in plasmas is due solely to the free electrons. This general assumption makes the index of refraction always less than one. However, recent soft x-ray laser interferometry experiments with Aluminum plasmas at wavelengths of 14.7 nm and 13.9 nm have shown fringes that bend the opposite direction than would be expected when using that approximation. Analysis of the data demonstrated that this effect is due to bound electrons that contribute significantly to the index of refraction of multiply ...