Can copper-based substrates be used to protect hatcheries from invasion by the New Zealand mudsnail?
Aquaculture facilities throughout North America are at risk of invasion by the New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Mudsnails can enter facilities in several ways including by crawling through effluent pipes. There is evidence to suggest that lining the insides of these pipes with copper-based substrates to create a contact deterrent could reduce the risk of mudsnail invasion. However, before copper-based deterrents can be recommended for wide-scale use, it is important that we understand how these materials perform across the range of physicochemical conditions common to hatcheries. ...
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