Sequential exposure to manganese and encephalitic viral infection causes a Parkinsonian phenotype likely mediated by astrogliosis
Developmental exposure to environmental toxins increases neuronal susceptibility to injury from subsequent viral challenges. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) present with a neuroinflammatory component often linked to environmental risk factors— including toxic metals, chemicals, physical injury, and viral infection. While many of these risk factors are sufficient to cause a Parkinsonian disease state, none have been shown to be necessary, suggesting an underlying shared mechanism. Furthermore, for any individual risk factor, there is high variability regarding development ...
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