Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction
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We report anomalous fringe shifts observed in soft X-ray laser interferograms of laser-created Al plasmas. This clear experimental evidence shows that the contribution of bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction of laser-created plasmas at soft X-ray wavelengths, resulting in values greater than 1. The comparison of measured and simulated interferograms shows that this results from the dominant contribution of low-charge ions to the index of refraction. This usually neglected bound electron contribution can affect the propagation of soft X-ray radiation in plasmas and the interferometric ...