Indirect detection of intentional chemical contamination in the distribution system using low cost turbidity sensors
Rapid detection of chemical contamination in the distribution system is essential in protecting public health, and using water quality surrogates to signal a contamination event offers the advantage of detecting a large number of chemicals. The concern over using surrogate parameters is whether they offer the ability to detect contaminants at concentrations low enough to prevent serious illness. The best candidates for water quality surrogates are generally thought to be chlorine residual and TOC, with conductivity, pH and turbidity being less sensitive to many chemical contaminants. All of these ...
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Cho, Seongho; Carlson, Kenneth; Stutzman, Kenneth