Reuse of oil and gas produced water for irrigation of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): plant physiological and immune system response
Water resources for agricultural irrigation in the semiarid western United States are challenged due to increased oil and gas (O&G) activity and increasing water scarcity. Produced water (PW) generated from the O&G industry has been considered as an alternative source for crop irrigation, but there are few studies on the topic. Thus, here a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of PW irrigation on spring wheat (Triticum aesticum L.) with respect to plant morphology, physiology, and immunity to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Plants were irrigated with the following types of ...
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