Opioid modulation of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
Widespread opioid use and abuse has resulted in an opioid epidemic in the United States and worldwide. Among several adverse effects of this drug class, opioids disrupt the sleep/wake cycle. While sleep induction and regulation is complex, and opioid receptors are known to be located in central sleep regulatory nuclei, it has not been specifically studied if opioids affect photoentrainment of circadian rhythm and thus the sleep/wake cycle. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are the exclusive conduits for non-image forming visual functions, such as the aforementioned ...
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