Treatment of shale oil and gas produced water using membrane distillation combined with effective pretreatment
Fossil energy is indispensable for society development. Shale oil and gas as unconventional energy resource plays an important role in improving the energy security of U.S. But the exploitation of shale oil and gas is accompanied by substantial freshwater consumption and wastewater generation. The wastewater generated from shale oil and gas production contains large amounts of salts, particles, and petroleum-associated pollutants, inevitably imposing harmful consequences to the ecological environment if not properly treated. Effective treatment of shale oil and gas wastewater, ideally for ...
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