Insects of Western North America 11. Bioluminescent behavior of North American firefly larvae (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) with a discussion of function and evolution
Observations were made on the ecology, natural history, and glowing behavior of five North American species of firefly larvae, two Pyractomena LeConte, two Photuris LeConte, and one Photinus Laporte. These observations focused on response and periodic glowing. Response glows were long-lasting glows produced by resting/hiding larva in response to a threatening stimulus. Periodic glows were short spontaneous glows produced by actively crawling larva. Durations of three short periodic glowers averaged 0.8 to 3.5 seconds with a duty cycle of 30 to 46%. Durations of five long periodic glowers averaged ...
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