Mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes: role of the gut microbiota and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Vascular dysfunction, characterized by arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, is a key antecedent to overt cardiovascular disease in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of vascular dysfunction in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals are not fully known, a growing body of evidence suggest that adverse cellular processes, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation and oxidative stress, are primarily responsible for the disruption of normal vascular function in these two metabolic diseases. Therefore, identifying effective strategies ...
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