A graph-based, systems approach for detecting violent extremist radicalization trajectories and other latent behaviors
Hung, Benjamin W. K., author
Jayasumana, Anura P., advisor
Chong, Edwin K. P., committee member
Ray, Indrajit, committee member
Sega, Ronald M., committee member
The number and lethality of violent extremist plots motivated by the Salafi-jihadist ideology have been growing for nearly the last decade in both the U.S and Western Europe. While detecting the radicalization of violent extremists is a key component in preventing future terrorist attacks, it remains a significant challenge to law enforcement due to the issues of both scale and dynamics. Recent terrorist attack successes highlight the real possibility of missed signals from, or continued radicalization by, individuals whom the authorities had formerly investigated and even interviewed. Additionally, beyond considering just the behavioral dynamics of a person of interest is the need for investigators to consider the behaviors and activities of social ties vis-à-vis the person of interest. We undertake a fundamentally systems approach in addressing these challenges by investigating the need and feasibility of a radicalization detection system, a risk assessment assistance technology for law enforcement and intelligence agencies. The proposed system first mines public data and government databases for individuals who exhibit risk indicators for extremist violence, and then enables law enforcement to monitor those individuals at the scope and scale that is lawful, and account for the dynamic indicative behaviors of the individuals and their associates rigorously and automatically. In this thesis, we first identify the operational deficiencies of current law enforcement and intelligence agency efforts, investigate the environmental conditions and stakeholders most salient to the development and operation of the proposed system, and address both programmatic and technical risks with several initial mitigating strategies. We codify this large effort into a radicalization detection system framework. The main thrust of this effort is the investigation of the technological opportunities for the identification of individuals matching a radicalization pattern of behaviors in the proposed radicalization detection system. We frame our technical approach as a unique dynamic graph pattern matching problem, and develop a technology called INSiGHT (Investigative Search for Graph Trajectories) to help identify individuals or small groups with conforming subgraphs to a radicalization query pattern, and follow the match trajectories over time. INSiGHT is aimed at assisting law enforcement and intelligence agencies in monitoring and screening for those individuals whose behaviors indicate a significant risk for violence, and allow for the better prioritization of limited investigative resources. We demonstrated the performance of INSiGHT on a variety of datasets, to include small synthetic radicalization-specific data sets, a real behavioral dataset of time-stamped radicalization indicators of recent U.S. violent extremists, and a large, real-world BlogCatalog dataset serving as a proxy for the type of intelligence or law enforcement data networks that could be utilized to track the radicalization of violent extremists. We also extended INSiGHT by developing a non-combinatorial neighbor matching technique to enable analysts to maintain visibility of potential collective threats and conspiracies and account for the role close social ties have in an individual's radicalization. This enhancement was validated on small, synthetic radicalization-specific datasets as well as the large BlogCatalog dataset with real social network connections and tagging behaviors for over 80K accounts. The results showed that our algorithm returned whole and partial subgraph matches that enabled analysts to gain and maintain visibility on neighbors' activities. Overall, INSiGHT led to consistent, informed, and reliable assessments about those who pose a significant risk for some latent behavior in a variety of settings. Based upon these results, we maintain that INSiGHT is a feasible and useful supporting technology with the potential to optimize law enforcement investigative efforts and ultimately enable the prevention of individuals from carrying out extremist violence. Although the prime motivation of this research is the detection of violent extremist radicalization, we found that INSiGHT is applicable in detecting latent behaviors in other domains such as on-line student assessment and consumer analytics. This utility was demonstrated through experiments with real data. For on-line student assessment, we tested INSiGHT on a MOOC dataset of students and time-stamped on-line course activities to predict those students who persisted in the course. For consumer analytics, we tested the performance on a real, large proprietary consumer activities dataset from a home improvement retailer. Lastly, motivated by the desire to validate INSiGHT as a screening technology when ground truth is known, we developed a synthetic data generator of large population, time-stamped, individual-level consumer activities data consistent with an a priori project set designation (latent behavior). This contribution also sets the stage for future work in developing an analogous synthetic data generator for radicalization indicators to serve as a testbed for INSiGHT and other data mining algorithms.
Includes bibliographical references.
Includes bibliographical references.