Embankment overtopping protection by riprap considering interstitial flow
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Riprap is commonly provided to protect embankment slopes from localized erosion caused by surface runoff during rainfall events, but it can also provide erosion protection during small overtopping events. When flow rates are small, most water may flow interstitially through the riprap layer, then gradually above the riprap layer as flow rates increase. On relatively steep slopes, interstitial flow may still be a significant proportion of the total flow—even 100% of the flow—when the failure discharge is reached. In the late 1990s the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored tests on 2H:1V (50%) embankment ...