Hydraulic effects of biofilms on the design and operation of wastewater forcemains
The impact of biofouling on wastewater forcemains is generally not accounted for in current design practice and little information is available in literature regarding the effect of wastewater biofilms on forcemain hydraulics. In practice, many engineers select a clean water, new pipe roughness factor, to perform hydraulic calculations which may lead to under-sizing wastewater lift station pumps. Forcemains have to cope with a particularly challenging task; they have to ensure that solids contained in the wastewater (sand, gravel, organics) are readily transported along with the wastewater. ...
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